saint

listen to the pronunciation of saint
Englisch - Türkisch
aziz

Tom bir aziz gibi davrandı. - Tom acted like a saint.

O, bir aziz gibi davrandı. - He acted like a saint.

eren

Noel Baba bir Anadolu ereniydi. - Santa Claus was an Anatolian saint.

evliya
ermiş

Ermiş falan değil o. Öyleymiş gibi duruyor sadece. - He's not a saint. He just looks like one.

(Askeri) SAINT: Yörüngedeki uyduları önleme, inceleme ve özellikleri hakkında bilgi vermek imkanını sağlamak üzere hazırlanmış bir uydu kontrol sistemi
{f} aziz kabul etmek
kutsal

Protestanlar azizleri kutsal saymazlar. - Protestants don't venerate saints.

{f} azizler mertebesine çıkarmak
saint nicholas
noel baba
saint's day
azizler günü
Saint David's Day
(Din) Aziz Davud günü
saint kitts and nevis
Saint Kitts ve Nevis
saint peter
aziz peter
saint it
aziz gibi davranmak
saint it
azizlik taslamak
saint sophia
aya sofya
saintliness
kutsallık
be enough to make a saint swear
dinden imandan çıkarmak
latter day saint
mormon
patron saint
koruyucu aziz
patron saint
koruyucu melek
sainted
ölmüş
sainted
merhum
saintlike
çok sabırlı
saintlike
evliya gibi
east saint louis
doğu saint louis
hugh of saint-victor
Saint-Victor ile hugh
sainted
rahmetli
patience of a saint
peygamber sabrı
patron saint
(isim) koruyucu aziz
sainted
aziz mertebesindeki
sainted
azizler mertebesine girmiş
sainted
mukaddes
sainted
{s} azizlik mertebesine çıkmış
sainted
{s} kutsal
saintlike
{s} azizlere yakışır
saintlike
{s} mübarek
saintlike
{s} aziz gibi
saintliness
{i} azizlik
saintly
çok mubarek
saintly
{s} aziz
saintly
{s} kutsal
saintly
evliya gibi
saintly
{s} azizlere yakışır
saintly
{s} aziz gibi
saintly
{s} mübarek
saintly
çok
saints
evliya
Englisch - Englisch
someone connected with any of the sports teams known as the Saints, as a fan, player, coach etc
A title given to a saint, often prefixed to the person's name

Saint Stephen was the first martyr..

A person to whom a church or another religious group has officially attributed the title of "saint"

Kateri Tekawitha was proclaimed a saint.

One who is sanctified or made holy; a person who is separated unto God’s service

to the assembly of God which is at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in every place, both theirs and ours. (1Cor. 1:2).

A person with positive qualities

Dorothy Day was a living saint.

To canonize, to formally recognize someone as a saint

Many wish to see Pope John Paul II sainted immediately.

{n} one eminent for piety, a sort of puritan
{v} to canonize, to appear very pious or holy
A title given to a saint, often prefixed to the persons name
{f} recognize as a saint; canonize, add to the list of saints officially recognized by the Christian Church
a person whose virtue and holiness was considered to be proven and who was already with God; a saint was considered capable of interceding with God on behalf of a person who prayed to them, and of performing miracles
a person who has died and has been declared a saint by canonization
One who is sanctified or made holy; a person who is separated unto God's service
One of the blessed in heaven
Typically, the term saint refers to someone who has lived a life of exceptional Christian virtue, totally dedicated to God, and who has passed on into heaven In heaven, a saint can be called upon to intercede for the living In Orthodoxy saints are often venerated with the use of icons, while in Catholicism, their relics have been the focus of veneration and worship
hold sacred
model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal
person of exceptional holiness a person who has died and has been declared a saint by canonization
A person whom a church or another religious group has officially proclaimed to have shown heroic virtue and holiness
a title of honor and recognition given by the Church to people who lived holy lives, who are believed to be in heaven, and thus, capable of interceding
A spiritually evolved person
approval If you refer to a living person as a saint, you mean that they are extremely kind, patient, and unselfish. My girlfriend is a saint to put up with me. Holy person. In the New Testament, St. Paul used the term to mean a member of the Christian community, but the term more commonly refers to those noted for their holiness and venerated during their lifetimes or after death. In Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, saints are publicly recognized by the church and are considered intercessors with God for the living. They are honoured on special feast days, and their remains and personal effects are venerated as relics. Often Christian saints perform miracles in their lifetime, or miracles occur in their names after their death. In Islam, wali ("friend of God") is often translated as saint; in Buddhism, arhats and bodhisattvas are roughly equivalent to saints. Hindu sadhus are somewhat similar. See also canonization. Adalbert Saint Agatha Saint Agnes Saint Aidan Saint Albertus Magnus Saint Alexander Nevsky Saint Ambrose Saint Andrew Saint Angilbert Saint Anselm of Canterbury Saint Ansgar Saint Anthony of Egypt Saint Anthony of Padua Saint Aquinas Saint Thomas Athanasius Saint Augustine of Hippo Saint Augustine of Canterbury Saint Barbara Saint Barnabas Saint Bartholomew Saint Basil the Great Saint Becket Saint Thomas Bede Saint Bellarmine Saint Robert Benedict of Nursia Saint Bernadette of Lourdes Saint Bernard de Clairvaux Saint Bernardine of Siena Saint Bolingbroke Henry Saint John 1st Viscount Bonaventure Saint Boniface Saint Borromeo Saint Charles Brébeuf Saint Jean de Brendan Saint Bridget Saint Bruno of Querfurt Saint Saint Boniface of Querfurt Cabrini Saint Frances Xavier Catherine of Alexandria Saint Catherine of Siena Saint Cecilia Saint Christopher Saint Chrysostom Saint John Ciaran of Clonmacnoise Saint Clare of Assisi Saint Clement of Alexandria Saint Columba Saint Columban Saint Cuthbert Saint Cyprian Saint Cyril of Alexandria Saint Cyril of Jerusalem Saint Denis Saint Saint Denys Dominic Saint Drexel Saint Katherine Dunstan of Canterbury Saint East Saint Louis Race Riot Edward the Confessor Saint Elizabeth of Hungary Saint Francis de Sales Saint Francis of Assisi Saint Gelasius I Saint George Saint Godfrey of Saint Victor Great Saint Bernard Pass Gregory I Saint Gregory of Nazianzus Saint Gregory of Nyssa Saint Gregory of Tours Saint Gregory VII Saint Helena Saint Hugh of Saint Victor Ignatius of Antioch Saint Irenaeus Saint Isidore of Sevilla Saint James Saint Jerome Saint Joan of Arc Saint John of Damascus Saint Saint John Damascene John the Baptist Saint Joseph Saint Justin Martyr Saint Kolbe Saint Maksymilian Maria Saint Ladislas Lawrence Saint Saint Laurence Leo I Saint Leo IX Saint Loyola Saint Ignatius of Luke Saint Malachy Saint Margaret of Antioch Saint Saint Marina Margaret of Scotland Saint Mark the Evangelist Saint Martin of Tours Saint Mary Magdalene Saint Matthew Saint Mesrob Saint Saint Mesrop Mashtots Mont Saint Michel More Saint Thomas Neri Saint Philip Nerses I the Great Saint Newtown Saint Boswells Nicholas Saint Saint Olaf Olga Saint Saint Helga Palamas Saint Gregory Patrick Saint patron saint Paul Saint Peter Damian Saint Peter the Apostle Saint Photius Saint Pius V Saint Pius X Saint Plunket Saint Oliver Raymond of Saint Gilles Raymond of Peñafort Saint Rose of Lima Saint Saint Albans Raid Saint Andrews Saint Andrews University of Saint Augustine Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Saint Basil the Blessed Saint Bernard Saint Clair Lake Saint Croix Saint Elias Mountains Saint Elmo's fire Saint Francis River Saint George's Saint George's Channel Saint Gotthard Pass Saint Helena Saint Helens Mount Saint John Saint John River Saint John's Saint Johns River Saint Kitts Nevis Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Laurent Louis Stephen Saint Laurent Yves Henri Donat Mathieu Saint Lawrence Gulf of Saint Lawrence River Saint Lawrence Seaway Saint Louis Saint Lucia Saint Mark's Basilica Saint Martin Saint Paul Saint Paul River Saint Paul's Cathedral Saint Peter's Basilica Saint Petersburg Saint Thomas Saint Vincent Cape Saint Vincent Gulf Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Cloud porcelain Saint Denis Saint Exupéry Antoine Marie Roger de Saint Gaudens Augustus Saint Germain Treaty of Saint Jean Lac Saint John's wort Saint Just Louis Antoine Léon de Saint Léon Charles Victor Arthur Michel Saint Malo Gulf of Saint Maurice River Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Saë ns Charles Camille Saint Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy comte de Sebastian Saint Seton Saint Elizabeth Ann Simeon Stylites Saint Saint Stephen Stephen Saint Teresa of Ávila Saint Theodore of Canterbury Saint Thérèse of Lisieux Saint Thomas Saint Ursula Saint Vardan Mamikonian Saint Vincent de Paul Saint Vladimir I Saint Wilfrid Saint Xavier Saint Francis Crèvecoeur Michel Guillaume Saint Jean de John of the Cross Saint John the Apostle Saint Montcalm de Saint Véran Louis Joseph de Montcalm Grozon marquis de Northcliffe of Saint Peter Alfred Charles William Harmsworth Viscount Saint John Perse Marie René Auguste Aléxis Saint Léger Léger House of the Hospitallers of Saint Mary of the Teutons All Saints' Day Cyril and Methodius Saints Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
(1) A person who has been set aside for a holy life; in this sense, all Christians are saints (2) A person whose life is upheld as spiritually exemplary In some churches, there is a process for recognizing saints In the Roman Catholic Church, it is very formal In the Episcopal Church, it is done informally by the Prayer Book committee (3) In some groups, the word saint has come to mean a deceased Christian, as in the phrase “my sainted mother ”
{i} person canonized by the Christian Church for his holy qualities; extremely holy person, very righteous person
To make a saint of; to enroll among the saints by an offical act, as of the pope; to canonize; to give the title or reputation of a saint to (some one)
a free network scanner derived from SATAN See http: //wwdsilx wwdsi com/saint/
From the Latin word sanctus, meaning "holy, sacred" 1 A person who is devoted to serving God and other people The Christians in New Testament times called each other saints because they regarded themselves as specially set aside from the pagan world and dedicated to God and Jesus Christ through baptism 2 A person who is in heaven Sometimes the Church recognises the status of such a person officially by the process of canonisation The pope then canonises a saint
A person sanctified; a holy or godly person; one eminent for piety and virtue; any true Christian, as being redeemed and consecrated to God
A holy person, especially one who has shown heroic virtue
in the Catholic church; declare (a dead person) to be a saint; "After he was shown to have performed a miracle, the priest was canonized"
A saint is someone who has died and been officially recognized and honoured by the Christian church because his or her life was a perfect example of the way Christians should live. Every parish was named after a saint. Saint John
To act or live as a saint
person of exceptional holiness
One canonized by the church
Saint Agnes' Eve
The night of January 20, on which traditionally, if she performs certain rituals, a woman is supposed to have dreams of her future husband
Saint Agnes' Eves
plural form of Saint Agnes' Eve
Saint Andrew's Day
The feast day of Saint Andrew|Saint Andrew]], patron saint of Scotland, celbrated in Scotland on November 30
Saint Andrew's cross
A figure of a cross that has a form of two intersecting oblique bars
Saint Andrew's crosses
plural form of Saint Andrew's cross
Saint Anthony's cross
A T-shaped cross
Saint Anthony's crosses
plural form of Saint Anthony's cross
Saint Anthony's fire
Any of several inflammatory conditions of the skin, including erysipelas, herpes zoster, and ergotism
Saint Anthony's fires
plural form of Saint Anthony's fire
Saint Barbara
The patron of armourers, military engineers, gunsmiths, miners and anyone else who worked with cannon and explosives
Saint Bernard
One of a breed of large dog, famous for rescuing people on mountains
Saint Bernards
plural form of Saint Bernard
Saint Catharines
Alternative spelling of St. Catherines
Saint Charles
Any of various places in the United States, Canada, and France
Saint Charles
Any of various saints
Saint Cloud
See St. Cloud
Saint David's Day
The feast day of Saint David|Saint David]], patron saint of Wales, celebrated in Wales on March 1
Saint Elmo's fire
Alternative spelling of St. Elmo's fire
Saint Elmo's fires
plural form of Saint Elmo's fire
Saint Gallen
A city in Switzerland, the capital of the canton of Saint Gallen
Saint Gallen
A canton of Switzerland
Saint George
Patron saint of England and several other places; legendary killer of a dragon
Saint Helena
United Kingdom overseas territory in the Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Africa. Official name: Saint Helena and Dependencies
Saint Helenian
Of, or pertaining to, Saint Helena
Saint Helenian
Somebody from Saint Helena
Saint Helenians
plural form of Saint Helenian
Saint Helier
The capital of Jersey, the Channel Islands
Saint John's
The provincial capital of Newfoundland, Canada
Saint Kitts
An island in the West Indies, the northern island of the federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
A country in the Caribbean, officially named the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, comprising of the islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
A country in the Caribbean. Official name: Saint Lucia
Saint Lucian
Of, or pertaining to, Saint Lucia or its culture or people
Saint Lucian
Someone from Saint Lucia or of Saint Lucian descent
Saint Lucians
plural form of Saint Lucian
Saint Mary
the mother of Jesus Christ
Saint Monday
The supposed holiday observed on a Monday morning by well-paid artisans who had been drinking etc the previous day
Saint Nicholas
A 4th century Greek bishop from Anatolia
Saint Nicholas
The patron saint of children
Saint Nicholas
The patron saint of the marines in the Orthodox tradition
Saint Nicholas
The American, Latin American, and British variant of the European folk myth of Saint Nicholas, explaining the source of Christmas presents given to children on Christmas Day
Saint Nick
Santa Claus
Saint Paddy's
Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day
Alternative form of St. Patrick's Day
Saint Paul
The capital city of Minnesota
Saint Peter Port
A town, and capital of Guernsey
Saint Petersburg
Capital of St Petersburg, known before 1924 as Petrograd and between 1924 and 1991 as Leningrad, and former capital of Russia
Saint Petersburg
Region of western Russia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
An overseas territory of France off the eastern coast of Canada
Saint Valentine's Day
A holiday in remembrance of Saint Valentine, February 14th, celebrated by sending cards or similar tokens of love
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
A country in the Caribbean. Official name: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint-Louis
Alternative spelling of St. Louis, a city in Missouri, USA
Saint-Pierre
Capital of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Overseas department of France near Newfoundland
saint's day
A day in a liturgical calendar that is observed in honour of a saint; not necessarily a holiday
Saint David's Day
(Din) Saint David's Day is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on 1 March each year
saint blaise
Saint Blaise (or Blasius Βλάσιος, Armenian: Սուրբ Բարսեղ) was a physician and bishop of Sebaste (modern Sivas), Armenia. According to his Acta he was martyred by being beaten, attacked with iron carding combs, and beheaded
saint peter
Disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles; regarded by Catholics as the vicar of Christ on earth and first Pope; (synonym) Peter, Simon Peter, St. Peter, Saint Peter the Apostle, St. Peter the Apostle
Saint Adalbert
orig. Vojtch born 956, Libice?, Bohemia died April 23, 997, near Gdask, Pol.; feast day April 23 Czech prelate. Descended from the princes of Bohemia, he was trained in theology at Magdeburg. Elected the first native bishop of Prague in 982, he promoted the political aims of the Bohemian prince by extending the influence of the church beyond the Czech kingdom. Failing to convert his people, he retired in 988 to a monastery near Rome. On papal orders, he returned in 992 to find little change. Disillusioned, he left Bohemia in 994 to become a missionary along the Baltic coast, where he was martyred in 997. An account of his life was written by his friend and disciple St. Bruno of Querfurt. He was recognized as a saint soon after his death
Saint Agatha
flourished 3rd century AD?, Sicily; feast day February 5 Legendary Christian martyr. Born in Palermo or Catania, she resisted the advances of a Roman prefect sent to govern Sicily. After brutal torture she was sent to the stake, but as the fire was lit a great earthquake occurred, and the crowd demanded her release. She was led away to prison, where she died. Though she appears in lists of martyrs as early as the 6th century, the legend may be unfounded
Saint Agnes
flourished 4th century, Rome; feast day January 21 Legendary Christian martyr, the patron saint of girls. According to tradition, she was a beautiful virgin who turned away all suitors, declaring that she could have no spouse but Jesus. The rejected suitors informed Roman officials that she was a Christian, and she was punished by being exposed in a brothel. There she was left miraculously unharmed; the only man who attempted to violate her was struck blind, and she healed him with prayer. She was later murdered during the persecutions ordered by Diocletian
Saint Aidan
born Ireland died Aug. 31, 651, Bamburgh, Northumberland, Eng.; feast day August 31 Apostle of Northumbria and founder of Lindisfarne. He was a monk at Iona in Scotland when King Oswald of Northumbria requested that he be made bishop of the newly converted Northumbrians. He established his church, see, and monastery on the island of Lindisfarne, not far from the royal stronghold of Bamburgh. From there he evangelized northern England, founding churches, monasteries, and a school. Bede praised him for his learning, charity, and simplicity of life
Saint Alban
the first Christian martyr in England. He was born in Britain, but served in the Roman army. He became a Christian after helping a priest and was officially killed in 303AD
Saint Albans Raid
(Oct. 19, 1864) Raid by Confederates in the American Civil War. About 25 Confederate soldiers based in Canada raided the Union town of St. Albans, Vt., where they killed one man and robbed three banks. They retreated to Canada, where a pursuing U.S. posse captured several of them, though the posse was forced to surrender them to Canadian authorities. The Canadians returned the stolen money but later released the soldiers, causing strained relations between the two countries
Saint Albertus Magnus
born 1200, Lauingen on the Danube, near Ulm, Bavaria died Nov. 15, 1280, Cologne; canonized Dec. 16, 1931; feast day November 15 German cleric, theologian, and philosopher. Son of a wealthy German lord, he studied at Padua, where he joined the Dominican order (1223). At the University of Paris he was introduced to the works of Aristotle and to Averroë s' commentaries and decided to present to his contemporaries the entire body of human knowledge as seen by Aristotle and his commentators. For 20 years he worked on his Physica, which encompassed natural science, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, astronomy, ethics, economics, politics, and metaphysics. He believed that many points of Christian doctrine were recognizable both by faith and by reason. In 1248 he organized the first Dominican studium generale ("general house of studies," a precursor to the university) in Germany, at Cologne. Thomas Aquinas, who had been with Albertus in Paris and joined him in Cologne, was his chief disciple at this time. His works represented the entire body of European knowledge of his time, and he contributed greatly to the development of natural science
Saint Alexander Nevsky
born 1220, Vladimir, Grand Principality of Vladimir died Nov. 14, 1263, Gorodets Prince of Novgorod (1236-52) and Kiev (1246-52) and grand prince of Vladimir (1252-63). He fought off invading Swedes in 1240 at the Neva River (resulting in the epithet Nevsky). He was called back to service to defeat the Teutonic Knights in 1242 and also won victories over the Lithuanians and Finns. He collaborated with the Golden Horde in imposing Mongol rule on Russia, and the Great Khan made him grand prince of Vladimir. Alexander continued to rule Novgorod through his son. He helped the Mongols impose taxes, interceding with the Khan to prevent reprisals when rebellions broke out. A national hero, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox church
Saint Ambrose
born 339, Augusta Treverorum, Belgica, Gaul died 397, Milan; feast day December 7 Bishop of Milan. Raised in Rome, he became a Roman provincial governor. As a compromise candidate he was unexpectedly elevated from unbaptized layman to bishop of Milan in 374. He established the medieval concept of the Christian emperor as subject to episcopal advice and censure when he forced the emperor Theodosius to seek forgiveness from the bishop, and he opposed tolerance for adherents of Arianism. He wrote theological treatises influenced by Greek philosophy, including On the Holy Spirit and On the Duties of Ministers, as well as a series of hymns. His brilliant sermons and personal example converted St. Augustine
Saint Ambrose
{i} (340-397) citizen of Rome who was a writer and composer of hymns who became the bishop of Milan
Saint Andrew
in the Bible, one of Jesus' disciples. He is the patron saint of Scotland and St Andrew's Day, 30th November, is celebrated as the Scottish national day (1st century AD). died AD 60/70, Patras, Achaia; feast day November 30 One of the Twelve Apostles, brother of St. Peter, and patron saint of Scotland and Russia. According to the Gospels, he was a fisherman and a disciple of John the Baptist. Early Byzantine tradition calls Andrew protokletos, "first called." He and Peter were called from their fishing by Jesus, who promised to make them fishers of men. Early church legends tell of Andrew's missionary work around the Black Sea. A 4th-century tradition says he was crucified; 13th-century tradition states that the cross was X-shaped. His relics were moved several times after his death; his head was kept in St. Peter's in Rome from the 15th century until 1964, when the pope returned it to Greece as a gesture of goodwill
Saint Andrew
{i} one of the 12 apostles of Jesus
Saint Andrews
City (pop., 1995 est.: 15,000) and seaport, Fife council area, eastern Scotland. It was formerly the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland; its religious traditions began in the 6th century AD, when St. Kenneth is believed to have formed a Celtic religious community there. It received a charter in 1160 and was one of the principal towns in Scotland in the Middle Ages. In 1472 its archbishop was recognized as the primate of Scotland, and it took part in the important events of the Scottish Reformation. A popular seaside resort, it is noted for its golf courses and for the University of St. Andrews
Saint Angilbert
born 740, Aachen, kingdom of the Franks died Feb. 18, 814, Centula, Picardy Frankish poet and prelate at the court of Charlemagne. Of a noble family, he was educated at the palace school at Aachen and was a student of Alcuin. In 800 he accompanied Charlemagne to Rome. He was made lay abbot of Centula (St.-Riquier), Picardy, in 794. His graceful and sophisticated Latin poems offer a picture of life in the imperial circle. Charlemagne's daughter Bertha and Angilbert were the parents of the historian Nithard
Saint Anselm of Canterbury
born 1033/34, Aosta, Lombardy died April 21, 1109, possibly at Canterbury, Kent, Eng.; feast day April 21 Founder of Scholasticism. Anselm entered the Benedictine monastery at Bec (in Normandy) in 1057 and became abbot in 1078. In 1077 he wrote the Monologium to demonstrate God's existence and attributes by reason alone. He then wrote Proslogium, which established the ontological argument for the existence of God. In 1093, he became archbishop of Canterbury and soon became involved in disputes with William II over the independence of the church and the right to appeal to the pope, arguments that led to Anselm's exile. Although invited back by Henry I, Anselm again argued with the king over lay investiture (see Investiture Controversy). In 1099 he completed Cur Deus homo? ("Why Did God Become Man?"), which provided a new understanding of Jesus' redemption of humankind and revealed the increasing focus on the humanity of Jesus. Anselm was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1720
Saint Ansgar
born probably 801, near Corbie, Austrasia died Feb. 3, 865, Bremen, Saxony; feast day February 3 Missionary, first archbishop of Hamburg, and patron saint of Scandinavia. He was sent by Louis I (the Pious) to help King Harald Christianize Denmark and King Bjorn Christianize Sweden. He initiated a mission to all Scandinavians and Slavs and was appointed archbishop of Hamburg (832). But Sweden and Denmark returned to paganism by 845, and Ansgar had to repeat all his work. He thwarted another pagan rebellion and was recognized as a saint soon after his death
Saint Anthony of Egypt
born 251, Koma, near al-Miny, Heptanomis, Egypt died Jan. 17?, 356, Dayr Mr Antonios hermitage, near the Red Sea; feast day January 17 Egyptian hermit considered the founder of organized Christian monasticism. He began his practice of asceticism at age 20 and lived in solitude on Mount Pispir from 286 to 305. He emerged from his retreat to organize the monastic life of the hermits who had settled nearby. When the Edict of Milan (313) ended the persecution of Christians, Anthony moved to the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea. His monastic rule was compiled from writings and discourses attributed to him in Athanasius's Life of St. Anthony and the Apophthegmata patrum and was still observed in the 20th century by Coptic and Armenian monks. The hellish temptations he endured as a hermit became a popular subject for artists
Saint Anthony of Padua
born 1195, Lisbon, Port. died June 13, 1231, Arcella, Verona; canonized 1232; feast day June 13 Franciscan friar, Doctor of the Church, and patron saint of Portugal. He joined the Augustinian order in 1210 and was probably ordained a priest. He joined the Franciscans in 1220 with the goal of seeking martyrdom among the Muslims but instead became a teacher of theology in Bologna, Italy, and in southern France. The most beloved of the followers of St. Francis, he was known as a great preacher and miracle worker. He was buried in Padua, Italy, and he is the patron of that city. He is also invoked for the return of lost property
Saint Athanasius
born 293, Alexandria, Egypt died May 2, 373, Alexandria; feast day May 2 Early Christian theologian and staunch opponent of Arianism. He studied philosophy and theology at Alexandria, Egypt, and in 325 he attended the Council of Nicaea, which condemned the Arian heresy. He welcomed the council's teaching that the Son is "consubstantial with the Father" and defended that teaching throughout his career. In 328 he was appointed patriarch of Alexandria, but theological disputes led to the first of several banishments in 336. He returned from exile repeatedly and resumed his office, but Arian opposition continued. After being banished by Constantius II in 356, Athanasius lived in a remote desert in Upper Egypt and wrote theological treatises, including his Four Orations Against the Arians. The emperor's death in 361 gave Athanasius a brief respite under the toleration proclaimed by Julian, but a controversy with Julian's heathen subjects forced him to flee into the Theban desert. At the time of his death he again possessed the see at Alexandria
Saint Augustine
(AD 354-430) Catholic saint, bishop of Hippo, one of the Latin Fathers; city in Florida (USA), oldest city in the United States
Saint Augustine
born Nov. 13, 354, Tagaste, Numidia died Aug. 28, 430, Hippo Regius; feast day August 28 Christian theologian and one of the Latin Fathers of the Church. Born in Roman North Africa, he adopted Manichaeism, taught rhetoric in Carthage, and fathered a son. After moving to Milan he converted to Christianity under the influence of St. Ambrose, who baptized him in 387. He returned to Africa to pursue a contemplative life, and in 396 he became bishop of Hippo (now Annaba, Alg.), a post he held until his death while the city was under siege by a Vandal army. His best-known works include the Confessions, an autobiographical meditation on God's grace, and The City of God, on the nature of human society and the place of Christianity in history. His theological works On Christian Doctrine and On the Trinity are also widely read. His sermons and letters show the influence of Neoplatonism and carry on debates with the proponents of Manichaeism, Donatism, and Pelagianism. His views on predestination influenced later theologians, notably John Calvin. He was declared a Doctor of the Church in the early Middle Ages. City (pop., 2000: 11,592), northeastern Florida, U.S. It is the oldest continuously settled U.S. city. In 1513 Juan Ponce de León landed there in search of the Fountain of Youth and claimed the territory for Spain. It became part of the U.S. in 1821. The Castillo de San Marcos, now a national monument, is a symbol of the era of Spanish control. During the American Revolution the city was a refuge for loyalists, and during the Indian Wars it was the place of imprisonment for Osceola and other Seminoles. It is a winter and summer resort and a port on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. The economy is based on tourism and fishing
Saint Augustine of Canterbury
born , Rome? died May 26, 604/605, Canterbury, Kent, Eng.; feast day May 26 in England and Wales, May 28 elsewhere First archbishop of Canterbury. A Benedictine prior in Rome, he was chosen by Pope Gregory I to lead 40 monks as missionaries to England. They arrived in 597 and were welcomed by King Ethelbert of Kent, at the behest of his queen, and he gave them a church in Canterbury. Augustine converted the king and thousands of his subjects and was made bishop of the English. On the pope's instructions he purified pagan temples and consecrated 12 other bishops. He founded Christ Church, Canterbury, as his cathedral and made Canterbury the primary see in England. He tried unsuccessfully to unify his churches with the Celtic churches of northern Wales
Saint Augustine of Hippo
born Nov. 13, 354, Tagaste, Numidia died Aug. 28, 430, Hippo Regius; feast day August 28 Christian theologian and one of the Latin Fathers of the Church. Born in Roman North Africa, he adopted Manichaeism, taught rhetoric in Carthage, and fathered a son. After moving to Milan he converted to Christianity under the influence of St. Ambrose, who baptized him in 387. He returned to Africa to pursue a contemplative life, and in 396 he became bishop of Hippo (now Annaba, Alg.), a post he held until his death while the city was under siege by a Vandal army. His best-known works include the Confessions, an autobiographical meditation on God's grace, and The City of God, on the nature of human society and the place of Christianity in history. His theological works On Christian Doctrine and On the Trinity are also widely read. His sermons and letters show the influence of Neoplatonism and carry on debates with the proponents of Manichaeism, Donatism, and Pelagianism. His views on predestination influenced later theologians, notably John Calvin. He was declared a Doctor of the Church in the early Middle Ages
Saint Barbara
died 200; feast day December 4 Early Christian martyr and patroness of artillerymen. She was the daughter of a pagan, Dioscorus, who kept her guarded to protect her beauty and virginity. When she converted to Christianity he became enraged and took her to the Roman prefect, who ordered her to be tortured and beheaded. Her father performed the execution himself, and on the way home he was struck by lightning and reduced to ashes. Barbara was a popular saint during the Middle Ages and was invoked for aid in thunderstorms. She was dropped from the church calendar in 1969
Saint Barnabas
orig. Joseph the Levite flourished 1st century; feast day June 11 Apostolic Father and early Christian missionary. Born in Cyprus, he was a Hellenized Jew who joined the church in Jerusalem shortly after its founding. According to the Acts of the Apostles, he helped found the church in Antioch, calling on St. Paul to assist him. A conflict eventually separated them, and Barnabas returned to the island of his birth. One legend holds that he was martyred in Cyprus. His reputed tomb is near the Monastery of St. Barnabas at Salamis, whose Christian community Paul and Barnabas founded
Saint Bartholomew
flourished 1st century AD died traditionally Albanopolis, Armenia; Western feast day August 24; date varies in Eastern churches One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He is mentioned only briefly in the Gospels, and his Hebrew name may have been Nathanael bar Tolmai. By tradition he was a missionary to Ethiopia, Mesopotamia, Parthia (in modern Iran), Lycaonia (in modern Turkey), and Armenia. He was supposedly martyred at the command of the Armenian king Astyages, who had him flayed and beheaded
Saint Basil the Blessed
or Pokrovsky Cathedral Church constructed at the southern end of Red Square in Moscow (1554-60) by Ivan IV as a votive offering for his military victories over the Tatars. The brick-and-stone church was designed by the architects Postnik and Barma (who may in fact have been one person). It is a unique and magnificent architectural fantasy exhibiting Byzantine influences. Eight chapels topped by onion domes surround a central church with a tower topped by a tent-shaped roof and a small golden cupola. Each of the painted domes differs in design and colour
Saint Basil the Great
born AD 329, Caesarea Mazaca, Cappadocia died Jan. 1, 379, Caesarea; Western feast day January 2; Eastern feast day January 1 Early church father. Born into a Christian family in Cappadocia, he studied at Caesarea, Constantinople, and Athens and later established a monastic settlement on the family estate at Annesi. He opposed Arianism, which was supported by the emperor Valens and his own bishop Dianius, and organized resistance to it after 365. He succeeded Eusebius as bishop of Caesarea in 370. He died shortly after Valens, whose death in battle opened the way for the victory of Basil's cause. More than 300 of his letters survive; several of his Canonical Epistles have become part of canon law in Eastern Orthodoxy
Saint Bede
{i} (672-735) English monk who was a theologian and historian known as "the Venerable Bede" (he introduced the method of dating history from the birth of Christ)
Saint Bede
He is best known for his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (732?), tracing Britain's history from 55 BC to AD 597, a source vital to the history of the conversion to Christianity of the Anglo-Saxon tribes in Britain. His method of dating events from the time of Christ's birth (AD) came into general use through the popularity of the Historia ecclesiastica and two works on chronology
Saint Bede
v. known as the Venerable Bede born 672/673, traditionally Monkton in Jarrow, Northumbria [Eng.] died May 25, 735, Jarrow; feast day May 25 Anglo-Saxon theologian, historian, and chronologist. Raised in a monastery, he was ordained a priest at age
Saint Benedict
{i} (480-547) Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order approximately in 540; small village in Oregon (USA)
Saint Benedict of Nursia
born 480, Nursia, Kingdom of the Lombards died 547 Founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino, Italy, and father of Western monasticism. Born into a prominent family at Nursia in central Italy, he rejected the immoral and profligate life of the rich and became a hermit outside Rome, where he attracted disciples. At his monastery at Cassino he formulated the Benedictine Rule, which became standard in monasteries throughout Europe. The Rule includes a probationary year prior to the vow of obedience and lifelong residence at one monastery, a ban on personal property, an abbot elected for life who appoints all other officers, and a precisely ordered day that includes five to six hours of liturgy and prayer, five hours of manual work, and four hours of scriptural and spiritual reading
Saint Bernadette
a girl who claimed to have seen the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, which made Lourdes a place of pilgrimage, especially for the sick (1844-79). Bernadette, Saint
Saint Bernadette of Lourdes
The grotto at Lourdes became a pilgrimage site; its waters are reputed to have healing powers
Saint Bernadette of Lourdes
orig. Marie-Bernarde Soubirous born Jan. 7, 1844, Lourdes, France died April 16, 1879, Nevers; canonized Dec. 8, 1933; feast day April 16, but sometimes February 18 in France French visionary. The daughter of a miller, she had a poverty-stricken childhood and was often ill. In 1858 she had a series of visions of Mary; she defended their authenticity against the doubts of her parents, the clergy, and civil authorities. She joined the Sisters of Charity at Nevers (1866) and remained in seclusion until her death at
Saint Bernard
{i} large breed of dog (trained especially to rescue people from avalanches in the Alps)
Saint Bernard
Breed of rescue dog that saved about 2,500 people over 300 years of service at a hospice in Great St. Bernard pass in the Pennine Alps. Probably descended from mastiff-like dogs, it was brought to the hospice in the late 17th century. A powerful dog with a massive head and drooping ears, it stands at least 25 in. (65 cm) and weighs 110-200 lbs (50-90 kg). Its dense coat is red-brown and white or brindle and white and may be short or medium-long. The long-haired variety was produced by crosses with the Newfoundland in the early 19th century
Saint Bernard de Clairvaux
born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijons, near Dijon, Burgundy died Aug. 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized 1174; feast day August 20 French Cistercian monk, mystic, and doctor of the church. Born into an aristocratic family near Dijon, he turned away from a literary education for the monastic life, entering the austere religious community at Cîteaux in 1112. As abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux, Champagne, which he founded in 1115, he helped establish the widespread popularity of the order. Between 1130 and 1145 he mediated civil and ecclesiastical councils and theological debates, and his support for Pope Innocent II helped secure the papacy during the schism with Anacletus. Bernard was the confidant of five popes and became perhaps the most renowned religious figure in Europe. He actively preached the Second Crusade and wrote a number of sermons on the Song of Solomon. He opposed the teachings of Peter Abelard and Henry of Lausanne and defended devotion to the Virgin Mary
Saint Bernardine of Siena
born Sept. 8, 1380, Massa Marittima, Siena died May 20, 1444, L'Aquila, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; canonized 1450; feast day May 20 Franciscan priest and theologian. Born into a noble family but orphaned early, he entered the Observants (1402), a strict branch of the Franciscan order that he later helped to spread throughout Europe. In 1417 he began preaching tours in Italy, seeking to combat the lawlessness, strife, and immorality resulting from the Western Schism. Through the Council of Florence he worked to unite the Greek and Roman churches. Numerous miracles are said to have occurred at his tomb
Saint Bonaventure
born 1217, Bagnoregio, Papal States died July 15, 1274, Lyon; canonized April 14, 1482; feast day July 15 Italian medieval theologian, cardinal, and minister general of the Franciscans. The son of a physician from near Viterbo, he recovered from a near-fatal childhood illness through the intercession of St. Francis of Assisi. After study at the University of Paris, he entered the Franciscan order in 1244. In 1254 he assumed control of the Franciscan school in Paris. He defended the mendicants against the charge that they defamed the Gospels by begging for alms. Elected Franciscan minister-general in 1257, he healed an incipient rift between those who favoured a rigorous approach to poverty and those favouring a looser regimen, and he wrote a new life of St. Francis. His theological works include a commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard and Journey of the Mind to God (1259). Pope Gregory X appointed him cardinal of Albano (Italy) in 1273, and at the Second Council of Lyon he reconciled parish clergy with the mendicant orders
Saint Boniface
born 675, Wessex, Eng. died June 5, 754, Dokkum, Frisia; feast day June 5 English missionary and reformer. Originally named Wynfrith, he became a Benedictine monk and then a priest. He made two attempts to convert the Frisian Saxons; in 718 he journeyed to Rome, where Pope Gregory II entrusted him with a mission to the pagans east of the Rhine and gave him the name Boniface. In 722 at Hesse he founded the first of many Benedictine monasteries. He was active for 10 years (725-735) in Thuringia. He established four bishoprics in Bavaria, paving the way for its incorporation into the Carolingian empire. He convened five synods (740-745) to reform the Frankish clergy and Irish missionaries and a council (747) to reform the entire Frankish kingdom. He was killed by a band of Frisians while reading the Bible to recent converts
Saint Brendan
born 484/486, Tralee, Ire. died 578, Annaghdown, County Galway; feast day May 16 Celtic saint and hero of legendary Atlantic voyages. Educated by St. Ita at her school in southwestern Ireland, he became a monk and priest and was put in charge of the abbey at Ardfert. He later founded monasteries in Ireland and Scotland, notably Clonfert (561). A famous traveler, he voyaged to the Hebrides and perhaps to Wales and Brittany. He was immortalized in Voyage of Brendan, an Irish epic translated into Latin in the 10th century that told of his journey to a "Promised Land of Saints," and St. Brendan's Island was long sought by explorers
Saint Bridget
{i} Bride, St. Bride, Brigid of Ireland (451-523), Irish holy woman and abbess, patron saint of Ireland
Saint Bridget
born 1303, Swed. died July 23, 1373, Rome; canonized Oct. 8, 1391; feast day July 23 Mystic and patron saint of Sweden. She had religious visions from an early age but married and had eight children, including St. Catherine of Sweden. On the death of her husband (1344), she retired to a life of prayer. She lived in Rome after 1350, striving to bring the pope back from Avignon. In response to a revelation, she founded a new religious order in 1370, the Brigittines. In 1372, inspired by another vision, she journeyed to the Holy Land and died soon after her return to Rome
Saint Bruno of Querfurt
or Saint Boniface of Querfurt born 974, Querfurt, Saxony died March 14, 1009, near Braunsberg, Prussia; feast day June 19 Missionary and martyr. A member of a noble family, he was attached to the clerical household of the emperor Otto III. After the martyrdom of St. Adalbert (997), Bruno entered a monastery, taking the name Boniface, and continued Adalbert's work in Christianizing the pagan Prussians. The members of a mission he sent to Poland, including Saints Benedict and John, were killed en route; Bruno wrote biographies of both saints, as well as an acclaimed biography of Adalbert. As archbishop, Bruno visited the rulers of Germany, Hungary, and Ukraine, seeking aid. He temporarily converted the pagan Pechenegs. He was killed on his way to his Prussian mission
Saint Catherine of Alexandria
died early 4th century, Alexandria, Egypt; feast day November 25 Early Christian martyr. According to tradition, she was a learned girl of noble birth who protested the persecution of Christians during the reign of the Roman emperor Maxentius. She converted the emperor's wife and defeated in debate the best scholars he sent to oppose her. She was sentenced to be killed with a spiked wheel (the Catherine wheel), but, when it broke, she was beheaded instead. Her body was transported by angels to the top of Mount Sinai. One of the most popular saints of the Middle Ages, she was patron of philosophers and scholars. Her historicity is doubtful
Saint Catherine of Siena
orig. Caterina Benincasa born March 25, 1347, Siena, Tuscany died April 29, 1389, Rome; canonized 1461; feast day April 29 Dominican mystic and patron saint of Italy. She joined the Dominican third order in Siena in 1363 and soon became known for her holiness and severe asceticism. Catherine called for a Crusade against the Muslims as a means of calming domestic conflict in Italy. She also played a major role in returning the papacy from Avignon to Rome (see Avignon papacy). Her writings include four treatises on religious mysticism known as The Dialogue of St. Catherine
Saint Cecilia
flourished 3rd century, Rome; feast day November 22 Early Christian martyr and patron saint of music. According to a late 5th-century tradition, she was a noble Roman who had dedicated her virginity to God as a child and was married against her will to Valerian, a noble pagan. She told him of her vow, and he promised he would let her keep it if he could see the angel with whom she conversed. After being baptized, Valerian saw Cecilia talking to the angel. Valerian's brother also converted, and both were eventually martyred. Cecilia's good works infuriated the Roman prefect, who ordered her burned at the stake; when the flames did not harm her, she was beheaded. Her relics were discovered in the 9th century by Pope Paschal I, who moved them to the church in Rome that bears her name
Saint Charles
A city of eastern Missouri on the Missouri River northwest of St. Louis. Settled by French traders in 1769, it was the state capital from 1821 to 1826. Population: 54,555
Saint Charles Borromeo
born Oct. 1538, Arona, duchy of Milan died Nov. 3, 1584, Milan; canonized 1610; feast day November 4 Archbishop of Milan and leading figure in the Counter-Reformation. He earned a doctorate in canon and civil law at the University of Pavia in 1559. His uncle, Pope Pius IV, appointed him cardinal and archbishop of Milan in 1560. He was active in directing the Council of Trent, and he later helped execute its decrees and draw up the Roman catechism in 1566. He established seminaries and colleges in Milan and nearby cities and gained renown for his heroic behaviour during the plague of 1576-78
Saint Christopher
according to the Christian religion, a man who carried Christ across a river, and who became the patron saint of travellers (?-?250 AD). flourished 3rd century; Western feast day July 25; Eastern feast day May 9 Patron saint of travelers and motorists. He is said to have been martyred in Lycia under the Roman emperor Decius ( 250). Legends depict him as a giant who devoted his life to carrying travelers across a river. One day a small child asked to be transported, and in the middle of the river the child became so heavy that Christopher staggered under the burden. The child revealed that the saint had been carrying Christ and the sins of the world, thus giving rise to Christopher's name (Greek: "Christ-Bearer"). His historicity is doubtful
Saint Ciaran of Clonmacnoise
or Kieran the Younger born 516, Ireland died 549, Clonmacnoise; feast day September 9 Irish abbot, one of the founders of monasticism in Ireland. Ciaran was educated with St. Columba at the monastery of Clonard and then lived on the island of Aranmore as a disciple of St. Enda. He traveled to central Ireland and settled with eight companions at Clonmacnoise, where he founded an abbey (548) that later won renown as a center of medieval learning. Ciaran's abbey was so influential that more than half the monasteries in Ireland followed its severely ascetic rule. There is an annual pilgrimage to Clonmacnoise on his feast day
Saint Clair
A lake between southwest Ontario, Canada, and southeast Michigan. It is connected with Lake Huron by the Saint Clair River, about 64 km (40 mi) long
Saint Clair Shores
A city of southeast Michigan, a residential suburb of Detroit. Population: 68,107
Saint Clare of Assisi
born July 16, 1194, Assisi, duchy of Spoleto died Aug. 11, 1253, Assisi; canonized 1255; feast day August 11 Founder of the order of Poor Clares (Clarissines). Born to a noble family, she became devoted to her fellow Assisian St. Francis. She refused to marry and in 1212 fled to the Porziuncola Chapel, where St. Francis received her vows. She later became abbess of a female religious community that included her sister, St. Agnes, and her mother. Her order, the Second Order of St. Francis, or Poor Clares, adopted the absolute poverty of St. Francis but was strictly cloistered, unlike its counterpart, the Franciscans. Still allied with the Franciscans, the Poor Clares are noted for their poverty and their life of penitential prayer led for the good of church and society
Saint Clare of Assisi
{i} (1194-1253) Italian-born woman who found the order of Franciscan nuns
Saint Clement of Alexandria
Latin Titus Flavius Clemens born 150, Athens died between 211 and 215, Palestine; Western feast day November 23; Eastern feast day November 24 Christian apologist, missionary theologian to the Hellenistic world, and leader of the catechetical school at Alexandria. He was converted to Christianity by Pantaenus, a former Stoic who preceded him as head of the Alexandria school. Clement believed that philosophy was for the Greeks what the Law of Moses was for the Jews, a preparatory discipline leading to the truth. He asserted that men lived first as citizens of heaven and second as earthly citizens, and he defended the right of an enslaved people to rebel against its oppressors. Persecution by the emperor Septimius Severus in 201-202 obliged him to leave Alexandria and take refuge with Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem. He was revered as a saint in the Latin church until 1586, when doubts about his orthodoxy led to the removal of his name from the list of Roman saints
Saint Cloud
A city of central Minnesota on the Mississippi River northwest of Minneapolis. Population: 48,812
Saint Columba
or Colum or Columcille born 521, Tyrconnell died June 8/9, 597, Iona; feast day June 9 Irish abbot and missionary. A member of the warrior aristocracy, he was excommunicated for his part in a bloody battle. Exiled, he set out to do penance as a missionary. He founded two famous monasteries in Ireland before taking 12 disciples to the Scottish island of Iona ( 563), where they built a church and monastery that served as a base for the conversion of the Scottish Picts, and thereby Scotland, to Christianity
Saint Columban
born 543, Leinster, Ireland died Nov. 23, 615, Bobbio, Italy; feast day November 23 Irish abbot and missionary. One of the greatest missionaries of the Celtic church, he initiated a revival of spirituality on the European continent. He left Ireland 590 with 12 monks, and the Merovingian king Guntram granted him land in the Vosges Mountains in Gaul, where he established several monasteries, including the great intellectual and religious house at Luxeuil. He was disciplined for keeping Easter according to the Celtic usage, and he ran afoul with the Frankish clergy for his indictment of their moral laxity. He was forced into exile for his criticism of the sins of the powerful queen Brunhild and her court and then moved into what is now Switzerland, where he preached to the Alemanni. He later settled in Italy and founded the monastery of Bobbio ( 612), a centre of medieval culture known for its great library
Saint Croix
An island of the U.S. Virgin Islands in the West Indies east of Puerto Rico. Discovered by Columbus in 1493, it was controlled successively by Holland, England, Spain, France, and Denmark, which sold it to the United States in 1917. Largest island (pop., 1990: 50,000) of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Located south of Saint Thomas, it has an area of 84 sq mi (218 sq km). Its capital is Christiansted; the town of Frederiksted is the commercial centre. In 1493 it was visited by Christopher Columbus, who named it Santa Cruz. In the mid-17th century it was colonized in turn by the Dutch, English, Spanish, and French. It was purchased by Denmark in 1733 and sold to the U.S. in 1917. In 1989 it was devastated by a hurricane but recovered with U.S. aid. Tourism is the main industry; rum is distilled and exported
Saint Cuthbert
born 634/635, probably Northumbria, Eng. died March 20, 687, islet of Inner Farne, or House, off Northumbria; feast day March 20 English saint. A shepherd, Cuthbert entered the Northumbrian monastery of Melrose in 651 after receiving a divine vision. When plague struck 10 years later, he aided the afflicted, reportedly performing miracles. In 664 he became prior of Lindisfarne, where he instituted a severe rule. In 676 he retired to Inner Farne, where he devoted himself to prayer. His efforts to protect birds made him one of the earliest wildlife conservationists
Saint Cyprian
Latin Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus born 200, Carthage died Sept. 14, 258, Carthage; Western and Eastern feast day September 16; Anglican feast day September 26 Early Christian theologian and Church Father. He converted to Christianity 246 and within two years was elected bishop of Carthage. In 250 he went into hiding to escape the Decian persecution, when many Christians apostatized. The following year he returned; bishops in council supported his assertions that the church could remit the sin of apostasy, that bishops in council had final disciplinary authority, and that even unworthy laity must be accepted. In disputes with the bishop of Rome, Cyprian asserted that the people and their bishop constituted the church, that there was no "bishop of bishops" in Rome, that all bishops equally possessed the Holy Spirit, and that their consensus expressed the church's unity. He was martyred under Valerian
Saint Cyril of Alexandria
born 375 died June 27, 444; Western feast day June 27; Eastern feast day June 9 Christian theologian and bishop. He became bishop of Alexandria in 412. Zealously orthodox, he closed the churches of the Novatians, a heterodox sect, and expelled the Jews from Alexandria. His greatest doctrinal conflict was with Nestorius over the nature of Jesus; Cyril emphasized the unity of Jesus' divine and human natures while Nestorius emphasized their distinctness. Cyril condemned Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus (431), only to be condemned himself by bishops who supported Nestorius. Eventually Nestorius was declared a heretic and a compromise on Christ's nature restored peace to the church (433)
Saint Cyril of Jerusalem
born 315, Jerusalem died 386?, Jerusalem; feast day March 18 Early leader of the Christian church. He became bishop of Jerusalem 350. He was exiled three times by the Arians but was suspected by the strictly orthodox many years later, at the Council of Constantinople (381), for his association with moderate Arians. He anticipated the doctrine of transubstantiation in his writings and promoted Jerusalem as a pilgrimage centre. He was named a Doctor of the Church in 1883
Saint Denis
or Saint Denys died 258?, Paris; Western feast day October 9; Eastern feast day October 3 Patron saint of France and traditionally the first bishop of Paris. Probably born in Rome, he was, according to the 6th-century historian and bishop Gregory of Tours, one of seven bishops sent to convert the people of Gaul during the reign of Decius. Little is known of his life; he is believed to have been martyred during the persecutions of the emperor Valerian. A 9th-century legend says that he was beheaded on Montmartre and that his decapitated body carried his head to the area northeast of Paris where the Benedictine abbey of St. Denis was founded
Saint Dominic
{i} (1170-1221) Roman Catholic Spanish-born priest, founder of the Dominican Order
Saint Dominic
orig. Domingo de Guzmán born 1170, Caleruega, Castile died Aug. 6, 1221, Bologna, Romagna; canonized July 3, 1234; feast day August 8 Founder of the Order of Friars Preachers, or Dominicans. He joined the religious community of the cathedral of Osma 1196. On a visit to southern France in 1203, he encountered the Albigensian heresy (see Cathari) and determined to fight it. He gathered a group of preachers willing to travel the roads barefoot and in poverty, and in 1206 he founded a convent of nuns converted from heresy. While designing his order devoted to preaching, Dominic may first have met St. Francis of Assisi, who became his good friend. In 1216 he received sanction for his order from Pope Honorius III. He established schools of theology at his two principal houses near the Universities of Paris and Bologna
Saint Dunstan of Canterbury
born 909, near Glastonbury, Eng. died May 19, 988, Canterbury; feast day May 19 Archbishop of Canterbury. He served as a chief adviser to the kings of Wessex, beginning with Edmund I, who made him abbot of Glastonbury ( 943). Under King Eadred he served as minister of state, working to conciliate the Danish section of the kingdom and reform the church. Dunstan was outlawed (955) under King Eadwig and went into exile in Flanders, but he was recalled by King Edgar (957) and continued his reforms, restructuring English monasticism on the continental model. He became archbishop of Canterbury in 959
Saint Edward the Confessor
born 1003, Islip, Eng. died Jan. 5, 1066, London; canonized 1161; feast day originally January 5, now October 13 King of England (1042-66). The son of Ethelred II, he was exiled to Normandy for 25 years (1016-41) while the Danes held England (see Canute the Great). For the first 11 years of his reign, the real master of England was Godwine, earl of Wessex. Edward outlawed Godwine in 1051 and appointed Normans to high positions in government, thus preparing the way for the Norman Conquest. Godwine continued his opposition, and his son Harold (see Harold II) dominated England after 1053, subjugating Wales in 1063. Edward named Harold as his successor on his deathbed, but the duke of Normandy (the future William I) invaded England to claim the crown earlier promised him. Though an ineffectual monarch, Edward was famous for his piety, which earned him the epithet "the Confessor
Saint Elias Mountains
Segment of the Pacific Coast Ranges in the southwestern Yukon Territory of Canada and eastern Alaska, U.S. The mountains extend southeast about 250 mi (400 km) from the Wrangell Mountains to Cross Sound along the Canada-U.S. border. Many peaks exceed 17,000 ft (5,200 km), including Mount St. Elias (18,008 ft [5,489 km]) and Mount Logan. In 1741 Vitus Bering sighted Mount St. Elias from his ship and became the first official European discoverer of northwestern America. The mountains contain the world's most extensive ice fields outside the polar ice caps. The southern end of the range forms part of Glacier Bay National Park
Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton
orig. Elizabeth Ann Bayley known as Mother Seton born Aug. 28, 1774, New York, N.Y. died Jan. 4, 1821, Emmitsburg, Md., U.S.; canonized Sept. 14, 1975; feast day January 4 U.S. religious leader and educator, the first native-born U.S. citizen canonized by the Roman Catholic church. Born into an upper-class family, she married William Magee Seton in 1794. In 1797 she founded the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children, and in 1803 she was herself left a widow with five children. After converting from Episcopalianism to Roman Catholicism in 1805, she opened a free Catholic elementary school in Baltimore, Md., in 1809. In 1813 she founded the Sisters of Charity, the first U.S. religious order, and she served as its superior until her death. She is often considered the mother of the parochial school system in the U.S
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary
born 1207, probably Pressburg, Hung. died Nov. 17, 1231, Marburg, Thuringia; canonized 1235; feast day November 17 Princess of Hungary canonized for her devotion to the poor. She married Louis IV of Thuringia, who died of plague in 1227 en route to the Sixth Crusade. She then joined the Third Order of St. Francis and devoted her life to the poor and sick, for whom she built a hospice. As a young girl, Elizabeth is said to have stolen bread, which she gave to the poor, and later distributed grain during famines. In the best-known legend, which is often depicted in art, Elizabeth met her husband unexpectedly on one of her charitable errands; the loaves of bread she was carrying were miraculously changed into roses. This transformation convinced him of the worthiness of her kind endeavours, about which he had been chiding her
Saint Elmo's fire
Glow accompanying the brushlike discharges of atmospheric electricity that usually appears as a tip of light on the extremities of such pointed objects as church towers or the masts of ships during stormy weather. It is commonly accompanied by a crackling or fizzing noise. It is commonly observed on the periphery of propellers and along the wing tips, windshield, and nose of aircraft flying in dry snow, in ice crystals, or near thunderstorms. St. Elmo is an Italian corruption of St. Erasmus, patron saint of Mediterranean sailors, who traditionally regarded St. Elmo's fire as a sign of his guardianship over them
Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini
known as Mother Cabrini born July 15, 1850, Sant'Angelo Lodigiano, Lombardy, Austria died Dec. 22, 1917, Chicago, Ill., U.S.; canonized July 7, 1946; feast day December 22 Italian-born U.S. missionary, the first U.S. citizen to be canonized by the Roman Catholic church. She was determined from childhood to become a missionary, and she took her vows in 1877. She founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart in 1880, and in 1889 Pope Leo XIII sent her to the U.S. to work among Italian immigrants. She lived in New York City and Chicago but traveled in the Americas and Europe to found 67 houses of her order
Saint Francis River
A river, about 756 km (470 mi) long, rising in southeast Missouri and flowing generally southward in a meandering course to the Mississippi River in eastern Arkansas. River, southeastern Missouri and eastern Arkansas, U.S. Rising in southeastern Missouri and flowing south, it enters the Mississippi River just above Helena, Ark. , after a course of 425 mi (684 km). Part of its course forms a portion of the Missouri-Arkansas boundary. It is navigable for 125 mi (201 km)
Saint Francis Xavier
born April 7, 1506, Xavier Castle, near Sangüesa, Navarre died Dec. 3, 1552, Sancian Island, China; canonized March 12, 1622; feast day December 3 Spanish-born French missionary to the Far East. Born into a noble Basque family, he was educated at the University of Paris, where he met Ignatius of Loyola and became one of the first seven members of the Jesuits. He was ordained in 1537, and in 1542 he embarked on a three-year mission to India. In 1545 he established missions in the Malay Archipelago, and in 1549 he traveled to Japan, where he was the first to introduce Christianity systematically. He returned to India in 1551 and died the following year while attempting to secure entrance to China. He is believed to have baptized about 30,000 converts; his success was partly due to adaptation to local cultures. In 1927 he was named patron of all missions
Saint Francis de Sales
born Aug. 21, 1567, Thorens-Glières, Savoy died Dec. 28, 1622, Lyon; canonized 1665; feast day January 24 Roman Catholic bishop of Geneva and Doctor of the Church. He studied in Paris and at Padua and was ordained in 1593. He was consecrated bishop of Geneva in 1602. In 1610, with St. Jane Frances de Chantal, he founded the Visitation of Holy Mary (the Visitation Nuns), a teaching order. His Introduction to a Devout Life (1609) argued that spiritual perfection is possible for ordinary individuals busy with worldly affairs. He was an active opponent of Calvinism. Pius XI named him patron saint of writers
Saint Francis of Assisi
{i} (c.1182-c.1226, born Giovanni di Bernardone) Italian monk who preached simplicity and poverty and humility before God, founder of the Franciscan order
Saint Francis of Assisi
orig. Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone born 1181/82, Assisi, duchy of Spoleto died Oct. 3, 1226, Assisi; canonized July 16, 1228; feast day October 4 Italian saint and founder of the Franciscan religious order. Born into a wealthy family, he was a soldier and prisoner of war before he experienced a conversion in his early 20s. He sold his property, gave the proceeds to the church, and began a life of poverty and devoutness. He soon attracted followers, whom he sent to preach throughout Europe, and in 1209 Innocent III gave approval for the Franciscan order. The Rule of St. Francis stressed the need to imitate the life of Jesus. In many ways a mystic, Francis viewed all nature as a mirror of God, calling all creatures his brothers and sisters. In 1212 he allowed formation of an order for women, called the Poor Clares. In 1219 he went to Egypt, preached to the sultan, and visited the holy places of Jerusalem. In 1224, after a vision, he became the first person to receive the stigmata. His influence helped restore popular faith in a church much corrupted by wealth and political aspirations
Saint Gelasius I
born probably Africa died Nov. 19, 496, feast day November 21 Pope (492-496). He combated the Acacian Schism in the East, which advocated the Monophysite heresy. He maintained papal authority and established Roman primacy in ecclesiastical affairs. He is known for his theory of the two powers of world governance in which he asserted that both sacred and civil power are of divine origin and independent. In 494 he changed the pagan Lupercalia festival into the feast of the Purification
Saint George
St George's Day, 23rd April, is celebrated as the English national day (?-303 AD) the patron saint of England. He was born in eastern Asia Minor, became a soldier in the Roman army, and was officially killed in Palestine because of his Christian beliefs. In many stories and pictures he is shown as saving the life of a woman by killing a dragon (=an imaginary large animal that breathes fire). George, Saint. flourished 3rd century died traditionally Lydda, Palestine; feast day April 23 Early Christian martyr and patron saint of England. His historical existence is uncertain, but from the 6th century he was the subject of legends as a warrior-saint. He was said to have rescued a Libyan king's daughter from a dragon, which he killed in return for a promise that the king's subjects would be baptized. In art, the young saint often wears knight's armor ornamented with a scarlet cross. He probably became England's patron saint in the 14th century, when Edward III made him patron of the Order of the Garter
Saint George's
the capital city of Grenada. Town (pop., 1991 est.: 5,000), capital of Grenada, in the West Indies. It lies on the island's southwestern coast, on a small peninsula. Founded by the French in 1650, it became the capital of the Windward Islands (1885-1958). Now a port, it exports cacao, nutmeg, mace, and bananas. It was the scene of fighting in 1983 during the military intervention in Grenada by U.S. and Caribbean forces
Saint George's
{i} capital city of Grenada (in the West Indies)
Saint George's Channel
A strait between western Wales and southeast Ireland. It connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Irish Sea. Wide passage between the Irish Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean. It extends for 100 mi (160 km) and has a minimum width of 47 mi (76 km) between Carnsore Point, Ireland, and St. David's Head, Wales. The name derives from the legend of St. George, in which he traveled to England by sea
Saint Gotthard Pass
Mountain pass, Lepontine Alps, southern Switzerland. An important motor and railway route between central Europe and Italy, the pass lies at an elevation of 6,916 ft (2,108 m) and is 16 mi (26 km) long. Though the pass was known to the Romans, it was not generally used until the early 13th century. A long, winding motorway leads across the pass, and the St. Gotthard Tunnel extends for more than 9 mi (14 km) beneath it. The railway through the tunnel connects Lucerne with Milan
Saint Gregory I
known as Gregory the Great born 540, Rome died March 12, 604, Rome Pope (590-604) and doctor of the church. A Roman patrician, by age 32 he had attained the office of urban prefect. He then felt called to the religious life. He built several monasteries and served as a papal representative before being elected pope in 590, to which he only reluctantly assented. He became the architect of the medieval papacy, seeking, among other things, to curb corruption by centralizing the papal administration. In 598 he won temporary peace with the Lombards, and he allowed the Byzantine usurper Phocas to make permanent peace with them in 602. Eager to convert pagan peoples, Gregory sent Augustine of Canterbury on a mission to England (596). Under Gregory, Gothic Arian Spain see Arianism) became reconciled with Rome. He laid the basis for the Papal States. He was a strong opponent of slavery, and he extended tolerance to Jews. He wrote the Pastoral Rule, a guide for church government, and other works. His extensive recodification of the liturgy and chant led to his name being given to Gregorian chant. He is remembered as one of the greatest of all the medieval popes
Saint Gregory Palamas
born Nov. 11/14, 1296, Constantinople died 1359, Thessalonica, Byzantine Empire Eastern Orthodox priest. From 1332 he was the chief defender of the school of mysticism known as Hesychasm, which integrated repetitive prayer with bodily postures and controlled breathing. His Apology for the Holy Hesychasts (1338) is a justification for mystical experience that involves both soul and body; his Book of Holiness (1344) is the fundamental textbook of Byzantine mysticism. He was made bishop of Thessalonica in 1347, and in 1368 he was acclaimed a saint and named Father and Doctor of the Orthodox church
Saint Gregory VII
v. orig. Hildebrand born 1020, near Soana, Papal States died May 25, 1085, Salerno, Principality of Salerno; canonized 1606; feast day May 25 Pope (1073-85). Educated in a monastery in Rome where his uncle was abbot, he rose to become a cardinal and archdeacon of Rome and was finally chosen pope in 1073. One of the great medieval reformers, Gregory attacked simony and clerical marriage and insisted that his papal legates had authority over local bishops. He is remembered chiefly for his conflict with Emperor Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy. Gregory's excommunication of the emperor gave rise to a bitter quarrel that ended when Henry begged for forgiveness in a memorable scene at Canossa, Italy, in 1077. A renewed quarrel led Gregory to excommunicate the emperor again in 1080, and Henry's forces took Rome in 1084. Gregory was rescued by Robert Guiscard, but the devastation of Rome forced the pope to withdraw to Salerno, where he died
Saint Gregory of Nazianzus
born 330, Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in Cappadocia, Asia Minor died 389, Arianzus; Eastern feast day January 25 and 30; Western feast day February 2 One of the Church Fathers of Eastern Orthodoxy. He was ordained a priest in Nazianzus in 362. He helped his friend Basil the Great combat Arianism. Though consecrated bishop of Sasima in 372, he did not take possession of the bishopric, instead retiring to a life of contemplation and study. He was noted for his defense of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity and of the Nicene Creed. In 380 he took over the Great Church of Constantinople, but, after being denied acknowledgment as bishop, he once again retired
Saint Gregory of Nyssa
born 335, Caesarea, Cappadocia, Asia Minor died 394; feast day March 9 Eastern Orthodox theologian and mystic. Initially a teacher of rhetoric, he turned to religion under the influence of his brother, Basil the Great, and was consecrated bishop of Nyssa in 372. Deposed by Arian opposition in 376, he was restored to office in 378 after the death of the Arian emperor Valens. An associate of Gregory of Nazianzus, he became a leading defender of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. His writings include The Great Catechesis, a classic outline of Orthodox theology that examines the place of the sacraments in the church. A Christian Platonist, he shared Origen's hope for ultimate universal salvation
Saint Gregory of Tours
orig. Georgius Florentius born Nov. 30?, 538/539, Clermont, Aquitaine? died Nov. 17, 594?, Tours, Neustria Frankish bishop and writer. Born into an aristocratic family that had produced several bishops of what is today central France, Gregory succeeded his cousin as bishop of Tours in 573. He was involved in numerous political events and in open dispute with the king, Chilperic I. His fame rests on his History of the Franks, a chief source for knowledge of the 6th-century Franco-Roman kingdom. His other writings, including Lives of the Fathers, on the lives of saints, and seven books of miracles, afford unique evidence of religious and social life in Merovingian France
Saint Helena
born 248, Drepanon?, Bithynia, Asia Minor died 328, Nicomedia; Western feast day Aug. 18; Eastern feast day [with Constantine] May 21 Roman empress and mother of Constantine I. She was the wife of Constantius I (Constantius Chlorus) before he became caesar (subemperor), and she bore Constantine before she was renounced for political reasons. She became a Christian under her son's influence. Implicated in the execution of her daughter-in-law (326), she made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and had churches built in Jerusalem and Bethlehem on the sites of the Ascension and the Nativity. By the late 4th century she was reputed to have found Christ's cross. Island (pop., 2000 est.: 4,647), southern Atlantic Ocean. Located 1,200 mi (1,950 km) west of Africa, Saint Helena has an area of 47 sq mi (122 sq km). The capital and port is Jamestown. With Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha, it constitutes a British crown colony (area: 119 sq mi [308 sq km]; pop., 2000 est.: 5,930). Discovered in 1502, it became a port of call for ships sailing between Europe and the East Indies. It was owned by the British East India Co. in the 17th century; because of its remoteness, it was used as the final place of exile for Napoleon (1815-21). It declined in importance after the Suez Canal was opened in 1869
Saint Helena
{i} Saint Helena Island, volcanic island in the Atlantic ocean between South America and Africa; (c247-c330), mother of Constantine I who became Christian in 313
Saint Helens
A volcanic peak, 2,549 m (8,363 ft) high, of the Cascade Range in southwest Washington. Before its violent eruption on May 18, 1980, it was 2,949.7 m (9,671 ft) high. The eruption produced a smoke plume visible over much of western Washington and Oregon, set off fires and mud slides that killed at least 65 people, and covered a large area with a blanket of volcanic ash. Sporadic eruptions of lesser intensity have occurred since that time
Saint Helens
{i} mountain in the northwestern United States which has an active volcano
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
died 110, Rome; Western feast day October 17; Eastern feast day December 20 Early Christian martyr. Probably of Syrian origin, he may have been a pagan who persecuted Christians before his conversion. He succeeded St. Peter the Apostle as bishop of Antioch. During the reign of Trajan, Roman authorities arrested Ignatius and sent him to Rome, where he was tried and executed. He wrote a series of famous letters on the journey to Rome, attempting to encourage his fellow Christians during their persecution. The letters condemn two sets of heretics: the Judaizers, who insisted that Christians continue to follow Jewish law, and the Docetists, who maintained that Jesus only appeared to suffer and die on the cross
Saint Ignatius of Loyola
orig. Iñigo de Oñaz y Loyola born 1491, Loyola, Castile died July 31, 1556, Rome; canonized March 12, 1622, feast day July 31 Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Born into the nobility, he began his career as a soldier. While convalescing from wounds inflicted by a French cannonball in 1521, he experienced a religious conversion. After a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he pursued religious studies in Spain and France. In Paris he gathered about him the companions (including St. Francis Xavier) who were to join him in founding the Jesuits. He was ordained a priest in 1537 and established the Society of Jesus in 1539. The new order received papal approval in 1540, and Loyola served as its general until his death, by which time it had branches in Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Portugal, India, and Brazil. Loyola described his mystical vision of prayer in The Spiritual Exercises. In his last years he laid the foundations of a system of Jesuit schools
Saint Irenaeus
born 120/140, Asia Minor died 200/203, probably Lyon; Western feast day June 28; Eastern feast day August 23 Bishop and theologian. Born of Greek parents, he was a missionary to Gaul before being named bishop of Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France). All his major works, including Against Heresies, were written in opposition to Gnosticism. To counteract Gnostic influence, he promoted the development of an authoritative canon of the New Testament. His defense of the belief that the Christian God and the God of the Old Testament were identical led to the development of the Apostles' Creed. His writings against the Gnostics also supported the authority of the bishops, and he claimed that the bishops of various cities were known as far back as the Apostles (see apostolic succession). His works have proved a valuable source of information on the Gnostics, because he gave accurate summaries of their beliefs before refuting them
Saint Isidore of Sevilla
born 560, Cartagena or Sevilla, Spain died April 4, 636, Sevilla; canonized 1598; feast day April 4 Spanish prelate and scholar, last of the Western Fathers of the Church. He became archbishop of Sevilla 600 and presided over several councils that shaped church policy, including the fourth Council of Toledo (633). He also promoted the conversion of the Visigoths from Arianism to orthodox Christianity. His best-known work was Etymologies, an encyclopedia that became a standard reference work in the Middle Ages. He also wrote theological works, biographies, and treatises on natural science, cosmology, and history. He was canonized in 1598 and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1722
Saint James
or James the Great born Galilee, Palestine died AD 44, Jerusalem; feast day July 25 One of the 12 Apostles of Jesus. He and his brother John (see St. John the Apostle) were fishermen on the Sea of Galilee and were among the first disciples to be called. As a member of the inner circle of disciples, he witnessed the major events in the ministry of Jesus, including the Transfiguration and the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. He was beheaded in AD 44 by order of Herod Agrippa. By tradition, his body was taken to Santiago de Compostela, Spain; his shrine there has long been a place of pilgrimage
Saint Jean
See Lake Saint John
Saint Jerome
born 347, Stridon, Dalmatia died 419/420, Bethlehem, Palestine Church Father and biblical translator. Born into a wealthy Christian family in Dalmatia, he was educated there and in Rome. Baptized 366, he spent most of the next 20 years in travel. He lived two years as a hermit in the desert of Chalcis. From 377 to 379 Jerome was in Antioch, where he studied biblical texts and translated the works of Origen and Eusebius. He lived in Rome (382-85), but theological controversy and opposition to his ascetic views led him to depart for the Holy Land, and he settled in Bethlehem, where he lived until his death. Traditionally regarded as the most learned of the Latin Fathers, he wrote numerous biblical commentaries and theological tracts on Pelagianism and other heresies. In 406 he completed his translation of the Bible into Latin, including his own translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew; Jerome's Latin Bible is known as the Vulgate
Saint Joan
Joan of Arc
Saint Joan of Arc
French Jeanne d'Arc born 1412, Domrémy, Bar, Fr. died May 30, 1431, Rouen; canonized May 16, 1920; feast day May 30 French military heroine. She was a peasant girl who from an early age believed she heard the voices of Sts. Michael, Catherine, and Margaret. When she was about 16, her voices began urging her to aid France's Dauphin (crown prince) and save France from the English attempt at conquest in the Hundred Years' War. Dressed in men's clothes, she visited the Dauphin and convinced him, his advisers, and the church authorities to support her. With her inspiring conviction, she rallied the French troops and raised the English siege of Orléans in 1429. She soon defeated the English again at Patay. The Dauphin was crowned king at Reims as Charles VII, with Joan beside him. Her siege of Paris was unsuccessful, and in 1430 she was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English. Abandoned by Charles, she was turned over to the ecclesiastical court at Rouen, controlled by French clerics who supported the English, and tried for witchcraft and heresy (1431). She fiercely defended herself but finally recanted and was sentenced to life imprisonment; when she again asserted that she had been divinely inspired, she was burned at the stake. She was not canonized until 1920
Saint John
An island of the U.S. Virgin Islands in the West Indies east of Puerto Rico. Discovered by Columbus in 1493, it passed to various European powers before Denmark sold it to the United States in 1917. A city of southern New Brunswick, Canada, at the mouth of the St. John River on the Bay of Fundy. First settled as a French trading post in the 1630s, it was captured by the British in 1758 and was a refuge for Loyalists after the American Revolution. Population: 129,376. English statesman, orator, and writer. A Jacobite, he spent much of his life in exile and wrote influential political treatises, notably The Idea of a Patriot King (1749). one of Jesus Christ's disciples (=his close friends and followers) , who wrote several of the books of the New Testament of the Bible: The Gospel according to St John, which describes the life and teaching of Jesus, the three Epistles of John, and The Book of Revelation. He is sometimes called St John the Evangelistor St John the Divine. City (pop., 2001: 69,661), southern New Brunswick, Canada. It is situated on the Bay of Fundy, at the mouth of the Saint John River. The site, visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1604 and fortified in the 1630s, was occupied by the British in 1758. It was chartered as the first city in Canada in 1785. The city recovered from a disastrous fire in 1877. Its year-round ice-free harbour fostered shipping, shipbuilding, and fishing. It is the province's largest city and principal port. Industries include lumbering and pulp and paper products
Saint John
a port in eastern Canada; the largest city in New Brunswick
Saint John
a river that rises in Maine and flows northeastward through New Brunswick to empty into the Bay of Fundy
Saint John
(New Testament) disciple of Jesus; traditionally said to be the author of the 4th Gospel and three epistles and the book of Revelation
Saint John Chrysostom
born 347, Antioch, Syria died Sept. 14, 407, Comana, Helenopontus; Western feast day September 13; Eastern feast day November 13 Early Church Father, biblical interpreter, and archbishop of Constantinople. He was raised as a Christian and lived as a hermit until his health gave way, after which he returned to Antioch and was ordained a priest. He earned a reputation as a great preacher (Chrysostom means "golden-mouthed"). Against his wishes, he was appointed archbishop of Constantinople in 398. He angered the wealthy with his concern for the poor and his criticisms of the misuse of riches. A synod convened in 403 by Theophilus of Alexandria condemned him on 29 charges and banished him to Armenia. He died en route to a more distant exile on the Black Sea. In 438 his relics were brought to Constantinople, and he was rehabilitated by the church
Saint John River
A river, about 673 km (418 mi) long, rising in northern Maine and flowing northeast into New Brunswick, Canada, then generally southeast into the Bay of Fundy. It was discovered in 1604 by Samuel de Champlain. River, northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Rising in northwestern Maine, it flows northeast to the Canadian border, then southeast to form that international boundary; in Canada, it flows through New Brunswick into the Bay of Fundy at Saint John. It is 418 mi (673 km) long. At Grand Falls, Nfd., the river drops 75 ft (23 m), and at its mouth are the "reversing falls" rapids, caused by the strong tides of the bay, which at high tide force the river to reverse its flow
Saint John of Damascus
or Saint John Damascene born 675, Damascus died Dec. 4, 749, near Jerusalem; Western feast day December 4 Monk and theological doctor of the Greek and Latin churches. He spent his entire life under Muslim rule. As a writer of hymns and theology, he had great influence in the Eastern and Western churches, especially through Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, a summary of the teachings of the Greek Fathers. He also wrote against the Iconoclasts (see iconoclasm)
Saint John of the Cross
Spanish San Juan de la Cruz orig. Juan de Yepes y Álvarez born June 24, 1542, Fontiveros, Spain died Dec. 14, 1591, Ubeda; canonized 1726; feast day December 14 Spanish mystic, poet, Doctor of the Church, and reformer of monasticism. He became a Carmelite monk at Medina del Campo and was ordained a priest in 1567. Joining St. Teresa of Ávila in her effort to restore the Carmelites to their original austerity, he cofounded the Discalced Carmelite order in 1568. He opened the first Discalced Carmelite monastery at Duruelo a year later, but reform caused friction within the order and led to his imprisonment at Toledo. He escaped in 1578 and later won high office in the order. In his great mystical poetry, including "The Dark Night of the Soul," he traced the steps of the soul's ascent to union with God
Saint John the Apostle
or St. John the Evangelist or St. John the Divine flourished 1st century AD One of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus, traditionally credited with writing the fourth Gospel and three New Testament epistles. The book of Revelation was also traditionally assigned to him. His father was a Galilean fisherman. John and his brother James (see St. James) were among the first disciples called by Jesus, and John appears to have held a position of authority in the early church after the resurrection. Later accounts of his life are based on legend. He is said to have died in Ephesus, and his tomb became a site of pilgrimage. John's Gospel, unlike the other three, presents a well-developed theological point of view, on a level with the letters of St. Paul. After a prologue in which he identifies God with the Word (Logos), he offers selected episodes from Jesus' life and ministry. His explications of theological issues such as the significance of the Son of God greatly influenced the development of Christian doctrine
Saint John the Baptist
(?12 BC-?28 AD) in the New Testament of the Bible, a religious teacher who told people that Jesus Christ was coming, and who baptized Jesus in the River Jordan. (about 12 BC-28 AD) a religious teacher in the New Testament of the Bible who baptized Jesus in the river Jordan. born 1st century AD Jewish prophet revered in Christianity as the forerunner of Jesus. Sources for his life are the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the historian Josephus. His mother, Elizabeth, was perhaps a relative of Mary; his father was the priest Zechariah. As a young man John lived in the Judaean desert, either as a hermit or as part of a Jewish monastic community such as the Essenes. He attracted much public notice AD 28 as a prophet in the Jordan Valley. He preached the imminent wrathful judgment of God and called on his hearers to repent and be baptized. Jesus himself came to be baptized by John and shortly afterward began his own mission. John was imprisoned for criticizing the illegal marriage of Herod Antipas and was executed after Herod's stepdaughter, Salome, demanded his head as a reward for dancing for the king's guests
Saint John's
{i} capital of Antigua and Barbuda (independent commonwealth in the West Indies); city and main port of Newfoundland (Canada)
Saint John's
City (pop., 1991 est.: 22,000), capital of Antigua and Barbuda, West Indies. It lies on Antigua's northwestern coast. It is a resort and the island's main port, handling sugar, cotton, machinery, and lumber. Nearby Fort St. John's was damaged over the centuries (1690-1847) by earthquakes, fire and a hurricane. City (pop., 2001: 172,918), port, and capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Located on the southeastern Atlantic coast, St. John's was a small fishing base from the early 16th century; it was colonized by the British in 1583. Attacked several times by the French, it was securely British from 1762 and prospered as a fishing port, despite several disastrous fires in the 19th century. It is a commercial and industrial centre, a major ocean port, and the base for the province's fishing fleet. Industries include shipbuilding and fish processing. The annual regatta is one of the oldest sports events in North America. Signal Hill Historic Park memorializes several events, including Guglielmo Marconi's reception of the first transatlantic wireless message from Europe (1901)
Saint John's wort
{i} plant having five-petaled yellow flowers
Saint Johns River
A river, about 459 km (285 mi) long, of northeast Florida flowing generally north to Jacksonville then east to the Atlantic Ocean. River, northeastern Florida, U.S. It rises in the east-central part of the state and flows north parallel to the coast until it turns at Jacksonville to empty into the Atlantic Ocean, after a course of 285 mi (459 km). It is important for both shipping and recreation
Saint Joseph
A city of northwest Missouri on the Missouri River north-northwest of Kansas City. Laid out in 1843 on the site of a trading post founded in 1826, it became the eastern terminus of the Pony Express in 1860. Population: 71,852. flourished 1st century AD, Nazareth, Galilee region of Palestine; principle feast day March 19; Feast of St. Joseph the Worker May 1 In the New Testament, the husband of Mary and the earthly father of Jesus. Descended from the house of David, he was a carpenter in Nazareth. Betrothed to Mary when he found her already pregnant, an angel appeared to him in a vision and told him the expected child was the son of God. He and Mary journeyed to Bethlehem to be counted in the Roman census, and while they were there the child was born. The last mention of Joseph occurs in the Gospel of Luke, when he and Mary take the 12-year-old Jesus to Jerusalem
Saint Joseph River
A river, about 338 km (210 mi) long, of southwest Michigan and northwest Indiana flowing generally west, south, west, and northwest into Lake Michigan
Saint Joseph of Arimathea
in the New Testament of the Bible, a rich follower of Jesus who asked to be given Jesus's dead body so that he could bury it in the tomb that he had built for himself. There is also an old story that he brought the Holy Grail (=the cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper) to England and built the first Christian church in England at Glastonbury
Saint Justin Martyr
born 100, Flavia Neapolis, Palestine died 165, Rome; feast day June 1 Early Christian Apologist and theologian. A pagan born in Palestine, he studied philosophy before becoming a Christian in 132, probably at Ephesus. He then spent years as an itinerant preacher and teacher. One of the earliest Christian Apologists, he was the first to blend Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine. He wrote two Apologies addressed to Roman emperors, which asserted that Christian faith can be in harmony with human reason and that Christianity is a purer form of the truth glimpsed in pagan philosophy. In his Dialogue with Trypho he tried to prove the truth of Christianity to a scholarly Jew named Trypho. While living in Rome, he was denounced as subversive and condemned to death
Saint Katherine Drexel
born Nov. 26, 1858, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. died March 3, 1955, Cornwells Heights, Pa.; canonized Oct. 1, 2000; feast day March 3 U.S. missionary. The niece of banker and philanthropist Anthony J. Drexel, she inherited a vast fortune, which she used to fund her charitable enterprises. She built mission schools in Minnesota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and New Mexico, and in 1887 Pope Leo XIII asked her to become a missionary. In 1891 she founded the Blessed Sacrament Sisters for Indians and Colored People (now Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament), a congregation of missionary nuns dedicated to the welfare of Native Americans and African Americans. She founded several schools for minority students as well as Xavier University in New Orleans (1915). She was canonized in 2000
Saint Kitts-Nevis
officially Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis Independent nation of the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean
Saint Lawrence
An arm of the northwest Atlantic Ocean off southeast Canada bordered by New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Quebec. It is connected with the Atlantic by Cabot Strait and the Straits of Canso and Belle Isle. or Saint Laurence died 258, Rome; feast day August 10 Roman martyr. He was one of seven deacons in Rome during the papacy of Sixtus II. When the pope was executed during the persecution of Christians under Valerian, the authorities asked Lawrence to surrender the churches' treasures to the state, and he responded by distributing the money to the poor, for which he was condemned to death. His fearless behavior at his execution was responsible for many conversions; according to one legend, he was roasted to death on a gridiron, remarking to his torturers, "I am cooked on that side; turn me over, and eat
Saint Lawrence River
A river of southeast Canada flowing about 1,207 km (750 mi) northeast from Lake Ontario along the Ontario-New York border and through southern Quebec to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The river was first sighted by Jacques Cartier in 1534; in 1535 he ascended it as far as the site of the modern-day city of Montreal. Long a water highway for explorers, missionaries, and fur traders, it is today a major shipping route. River, southern Quebec and southeastern Ontario, Canada. It flows northeast out of Lake Ontario into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and is about 760 mi (1,225 km) long. It passes through the Thousand Islands and for about 120 mi (195 km) forms the boundary between New York and Ontario. Entering Quebec, it widens into Lake St. Francis, then flows past Montreal island. Below Quebec city it widens to 90 mi (145 km) at its mouth in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Major tributaries include the Ottawa, Saguenay, Richelieu, and Manicouagan rivers, all in Canada. It links the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes through the Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
An international waterway, about 3,781 km (2,350 mi) long, consisting of a system of canals, dams, and locks in the St. Lawrence River and connecting channels through the Great Lakes. Jointly developed by the United States and Canada, the seaway opened in 1959 and provides passage for oceangoing ships as far west as Lake Superior. U.S.-Canadian waterway and lock system. Located along the upper St. Lawrence River, it links the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes. Its construction, carried out in 1954-59, involved clearing a 186-mi (299-km) stretch of the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Lake Ontario. It included lakes, rivers, locks, and canals that extended for 2,340 mi (3,766 km) to connect Duluth, Minn., with the head of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. With the Great Lakes, it provides 9,500 mi (15,285 km) of navigable waterways. It allows deep-draft ocean vessels access to the Great Lakes' rich industrial and agricultural regions. It is navigable from April to mid-December
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