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A one-hundred-dollar bill, which carries the portrait of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), American author, scientist, inventor, and diplomat, and one of the Founding Fathers
A surname derived from Middle English Franklin
A male given name transferred from the surname, partly in honor of Benjamin Franklin
(obsolete except historical) A freeholder, especially as belonging to a class of landowners in the 14th and 15th century ranking below the gentry
An English surname
A male given name
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove. British explorer who led a search for the Northwest Passage (1845-1847) on which he and his 129-man crew perished. A record of the expedition's discovery of the passage was found in 1857. American historian noted for his studies of African-American history, such as From Slavery to Freedom (1947). Albee Edward Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Edmunds George Franklin Franklin Aretha Louise Franklin Benjamin Franklin John Hope Franklin Rosalind Elsie Frazier Edward Franklin Hooper Franklin Henry Kettering Charles Franklin Ladd Franklin Christine Norris Benjamin Franklin Pierce Franklin Powell Lewis Franklin Jr. Leonard Franklin Slye Rogers Roosevelt Franklin Delano Stahl Franklin William Swift Gustavus Franklin Tracy Benjamin Franklin Wade Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Wedekind Jesse Woodson James and Alexander Franklin James
A one hundred dollar note, which carries the portrait of Benjamin Franklin
{i} male first name; family name; Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), American statesman scientist and author, signer of the Declaration of Independence, publisher of "Poor Richard's Almanack"; city in Tennessee (USA)
a landowner (14th and 15th centuries) who was free but not of noble birth printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics; he helped draw up the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; he played a major role in the American Revolution and negotiated French support for the colonists; as a scientist he is remembered particularly for his research in electricity (1706-1790) United States historian noted for studies of Black American history (born in 1915)
A freeholder, especially as belonging to a class of landowners in the 14th and 15th century ranking below the gentry
An English freeholder, or substantial householder
{i} landowner, yeoman, independent farmer in Medieval England (Archaic)
Franklin D Roosevelt
born Jan. 30, 1882, Hyde Park, N.Y., U.S. died April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Ga. 32nd president of the U.S. (1933-45). Attracted to politics by the example of his cousin Theodore Roosevelt, he became active in the Democratic Party. In 1905 he married Eleanor Roosevelt, who would become a valued adviser in future years. He served in the New York senate (1910-13) and as U.S. assistant secretary of the navy (1913-20). In 1920 he was nominated by the Democrats as their vice presidential candidate. The next year he was stricken with polio; though unable to walk, he remained active in politics. As governor of New York (1929-33), he set up the first state relief agency in the U.S. In 1932 he won the Democratic presidential nomination with the help of James Farley and easily defeated Pres. Herbert Hoover. In his inaugural address to a nation of more than 13 million unemployed, he pronounced that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." Congress passed most of the changes he sought in his New Deal program in the first hundred days of his term. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1936 over Alf Landon. To solve legal challenges to the New Deal, he proposed enlarging the Supreme Court, but his "court-packing" plan aroused strong opposition and had to be abandoned. By the late 1930s economic recovery had slowed, but Roosevelt was increasingly concerned with the growing threat of war. In 1940 he was reelected to an unprecedented third term, defeating Wendell Willkie. He developed the lend-lease program to aid U.S. allies, especially Britain, in the early years of World War II. In 1941 he met with Winston Churchill to draft the Atlantic Charter. With U.S. entry into war, Roosevelt mobilized industry for military production and formed an alliance with Britain and the Soviet Union; he met with Churchill and Joseph Stalin to form war policy at Tehrn (1943) and Yalta (1945). Despite declining health, he won reelection for a fourth term against Thomas Dewey (1944) but served only briefly before his death
Franklin D. Roosevelt
a US politician in the Democratic Party, who was the President of the US from 1933 to 1945. He helped to end the Great Depression by starting a programme of social and economic changes called the New Deal. He also tried to give support to the Allies without getting the US involved in World War II, but when Japan attacked the US in 1941 he was forced to join the war. Roosevelt is the only person who has ever been elected President of the US four times. In 1921 he became partly paralyzed (=unable to move) (=unable to move) because of the illness polio, and he had to use a wheelchair. He was extremely popular when he was president, and many people listened to his 'fireside chats' (=speeches) on the radio, in which he explained his plans and policies. He was married to Eleanor Roosevelt (1882-1945)
Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake
A reservoir of northeast Washington formed in the Columbia River by Grand Coulee Dam
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
born Jan. 30, 1882, Hyde Park, N.Y., U.S. died April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Ga. 32nd president of the U.S. (1933-45). Attracted to politics by the example of his cousin Theodore Roosevelt, he became active in the Democratic Party. In 1905 he married Eleanor Roosevelt, who would become a valued adviser in future years. He served in the New York senate (1910-13) and as U.S. assistant secretary of the navy (1913-20). In 1920 he was nominated by the Democrats as their vice presidential candidate. The next year he was stricken with polio; though unable to walk, he remained active in politics. As governor of New York (1929-33), he set up the first state relief agency in the U.S. In 1932 he won the Democratic presidential nomination with the help of James Farley and easily defeated Pres. Herbert Hoover. In his inaugural address to a nation of more than 13 million unemployed, he pronounced that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." Congress passed most of the changes he sought in his New Deal program in the first hundred days of his term. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1936 over Alf Landon. To solve legal challenges to the New Deal, he proposed enlarging the Supreme Court, but his "court-packing" plan aroused strong opposition and had to be abandoned. By the late 1930s economic recovery had slowed, but Roosevelt was increasingly concerned with the growing threat of war. In 1940 he was reelected to an unprecedented third term, defeating Wendell Willkie. He developed the lend-lease program to aid U.S. allies, especially Britain, in the early years of World War II. In 1941 he met with Winston Churchill to draft the Atlantic Charter. With U.S. entry into war, Roosevelt mobilized industry for military production and formed an alliance with Britain and the Soviet Union; he met with Churchill and Joseph Stalin to form war policy at Tehrn (1943) and Yalta (1945). Despite declining health, he won reelection for a fourth term against Thomas Dewey (1944) but served only briefly before his death
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
FDR" (1882-1945) American politician, 32nd president of the United States (1933-45), implementer of the Depression-era social and economic programs known collectively as the "New Deal
Franklin Henry Hooper
born Jan. 28, 1862, Worcester, Mass., U.S. died Aug. 14, 1940, near Saranac Lake, N.Y. U.S. editor. He was the brother of Horace Everett Hooper, publisher of Encyclopædia Britannica. He joined the Britannica staff in 1899, and over the next 39 years he was connected with five editions of the Britannica, serving as editor in chief 1932-38
Franklin Pierce
(1804-1969) 14th president of the United States (1853-1857)
Franklin Pierce
the fourteenth president of the US, from 1853 to 1857 (1804-1869). born Nov. 23, 1804, Hillsboro, N.H., U.S. died Oct. 8, 1869, Concord, N.H. 14th president of the U.S. (1853-57). He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1833 to 1837 and in the Senate from 1837 to 1842. At the deadlocked Democratic Party convention of 1852, he was nominated as a compromise presidential candidate; though largely unknown nationally, he unexpectedly trounced Winfield Scott in the general election. For the sake of harmony and business prosperity, he was inclined to oppose antislavery agitation. His promotion of U.S. territorial expansion resulted in the diplomatic controversy of the Ostend Manifesto. He reorganized the diplomatic and consular service and created the U.S. Court of Claims. Pierce encouraged plans for a transcontinental railroad and approved the Gadsden Purchase. To promote northwestern migration and conciliate sectional demands, he approved the Kansas-Nebraska Act but was unable to settle the resultant problems. Defeated for renomination by James Buchanan in 1856, he retired from politics
Franklin Roosevelt
(1882-1945) 32nd president of the United States (1933-1945)
Franklin W Stahl
born Oct. 8, 1929, Boston, Mass., U.S. U.S. geneticist. Educated at Harvard University and the University of Rochester, he worked primarily at the University of Oregon. With Matthew Stanley Meselson he discovered and described (1958) the mode of replication of DNA. They found that the double-stranded helix breaks apart to form two strands, each of which directs the construction of a new sister strand
Franklin William Stahl
born Oct. 8, 1929, Boston, Mass., U.S. U.S. geneticist. Educated at Harvard University and the University of Rochester, he worked primarily at the University of Oregon. With Matthew Stanley Meselson he discovered and described (1958) the mode of replication of DNA. They found that the double-stranded helix breaks apart to form two strands, each of which directs the construction of a new sister strand
Franklin stove
n. A cast-iron heating stove shaped like a fireplace but employing metal baffles to increase its heating efficiency
Franklin tree
A deciduous tree or shrub (Franklinia alatamaha) originally native to Georgia but now known only in cultivation, having large white fragrant flowers and woody capsules
franklin stove
A kind of open stove introduced by Benjamin Franklin, the peculiar feature of which was that a current of heated air was directly supplied to the room from an air box; now applied to other varieties of open stoves
Aretha Franklin
At first she performed only gospel music, but at age 18 she switched from sacred to secular music. After struggling for a number of years to achieve crossover success, in 1967 her powerful and fervent voice took the country by storm as she began to release a string of songs including "I Never Loved a Man," "Respect," "Chain of Fools," "Think," and "Natural Woman." Her rousing mixture of gospel and rhythm and blues defined the golden age of soul music of the 1960s. In 1987 she became the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Aretha Franklin
{i} (born 1942) "Queen of Soul", American soul and gospel singer (best known for her 1967 song "Respect")
Aretha Franklin
born March 25, 1942, Memphis, Tenn., U.S. U.S. popular singer. Franklin's family moved from Memphis to Detroit when she was two. Her father, C.L. Franklin, was a well-known revivalist preacher; his church and home were visited by musical luminaries such as Clara Ward, Mahalia Jackson, B.B. King, and Dinah Washington. Franklin made her first recording at age
Aretha Louise Franklin
born March 25, 1942, Memphis, Tenn., U.S. U.S. popular singer. Franklin's family moved from Memphis to Detroit when she was two. Her father, C.L. Franklin, was a well-known revivalist preacher; his church and home were visited by musical luminaries such as Clara Ward, Mahalia Jackson, B.B. King, and Dinah Washington. Franklin made her first recording at age
Aretha Louise Franklin
At first she performed only gospel music, but at age 18 she switched from sacred to secular music. After struggling for a number of years to achieve crossover success, in 1967 her powerful and fervent voice took the country by storm as she began to release a string of songs including "I Never Loved a Man," "Respect," "Chain of Fools," "Think," and "Natural Woman." Her rousing mixture of gospel and rhythm and blues defined the golden age of soul music of the 1960s. In 1987 she became the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Benjamin Franklin
{i} (1706-1790) U.S. statesman scientist and author, signer of the Declaration of Independence, publisher of "Poor Richard's Almanack
Benjamin Franklin
a US politician, writer, and scientist. Franklin was involved in writing the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. He is famous for proving that lightning is a form of electricity by doing a scientific test in which he flew a kite during a storm, and he invented the lightning conductor. He also wrote Poor Richard's Almanack (1732-57) (1706-90). born Jan. 17, 1706, Boston, Mass. died April 17, 1790, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. American statesman, scientist, philosopher, and publisher. He was apprenticed at age 12 to his brother, a local printer. He taught himself to write effectively, and in 1723 he moved to Philadelphia, where he founded the Pennsylvania Gazette (1730-48) and wrote Poor Richard's Almanack (1732-57), whose proverbs and aphorisms emphasized prudence, industry, and honesty. He became prosperous and promoted public services in Philadelphia, including a library, a fire department, a hospital, an insurance company, and an academy that became the University of Pennsylvania. His inventions included the Franklin stove and bifocal spectacles, and his experiments in electricity led to the invention of the lightning rod. He served as a member of the colonial legislature (1736-51). He was a delegate to the Albany Congress (1754). He represented the colony in England in a dispute over land and taxes (1757-62); he returned there in 1764 as agent for several colonies. The issue of taxation gradually caused him to abandon his initial support for a unified colonial government under British rule. Believing that taxation ought to be the prerogative of the representative legislatures, he opposed the Stamp Act and helped secure its repeal. He served as a delegate to the second Continental Congress and as a member of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. In 1776 he went to France to seek aid for the American Revolution. Lionized by the French, he negotiated a treaty that provided loans and military support for the U.S. In 1781 he helped negotiate a preliminary peace treaty with Britain. As a member of the 1787 Constitutional Convention, he was instrumental in achieving adoption of the Constitution of the U.S. He is regarded as one of the most extraordinary and brilliant public servants in U.S. history
Benjamin Franklin Butler
born , Nov. 5, 1818, Deerfield, N.H., U.S. died Jan. 11, 1893, Washington, D.C. U.S. army officer. A prominent attorney in Lowell, Mass., Butler served two terms in the state legislature (1853, 1859). In the American Civil War he commanded Fort Monroe, Va., where he refused to return fugitive slaves to the Confederacy, calling them "contraband of war," an interpretation later upheld by the government. He oversaw the occupation of New Orleans in 1862 but was recalled because of his harsh rule. He led the Union army in Virginia, but after several defeats he was relieved of his command in 1865. In the U.S. House of Representatives (1867-75, 1877-79), he was a Radical Republican prominent in the impeachment trial of Pres. Andrew Johnson. He switched parties in 1878 to support the Greenback movement and later served as governor of Massachusetts (1882-84)
Benjamin Franklin Norris
born March 5, 1870, Chicago, Ill., U.S. died Oct. 25, 1902, San Francisco, Calif. U.S. novelist and short-story writer. Norris initially worked as an overseas correspondent and in publishing. He became the first important American author to embrace naturalism. McTeague (1899) is a portrait of an acquisitive society. He adopted a more humanitarian ideal beginning with his masterpiece, The Octopus (1901), the first novel of a projected trilogy dealing with the economic and social forces involved in the wheat industry. The second part, The Pit, appeared in 1903, but the third was unwritten at his death. Despite romanticizing tendencies, his works present a vivid, authentic picture of life in California in his day
Benjamin Franklin Tracy
born April 26, 1830, near Owego, N.Y., U.S. died Aug. 6, 1915, New York, N.Y. U.S. public official. He served as a county district attorney (1853-59) and, after fighting in the American Civil War, as U.S. attorney (1866-73). Appointed secretary of the navy (1889-93) by Pres. Benjamin Harrison, he continued the expansion of the navy begun by William C. Whitney, authorizing construction of new battleships and cruisers. His departmental reforms and modernization contributed to eventual U.S. naval superiority
Benjamin Franklin Wade
born Oct. 27, 1800, Springfield, Mass., U.S. died March 2, 1878, Jefferson, Ohio U.S. politician. He practiced law in Ohio before serving in the U.S. Senate (1851-69), where he opposed the extension of slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. In the American Civil War he joined the Radical Republicans in demanding vigorous prosecution of the war and headed a joint congressional committee to investigate the Union military effort. He cosponsored the Wade-Davis Bill, which brought him into conflict with Abraham Lincoln. Opposed to Pres. Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policies, he voted for his removal from office at his Senate trial and, as Senate president pro tem, prepared to succeed Johnson. Disappointed by the trial's outcome, he was later defeated for reelection
Charles Franklin Kettering
born Aug. 29, 1876, Loudonville, Ohio, U.S. died Nov. 25, 1958, Dayton, Ohio U.S. engineer. In 1904 he developed the first electric cash register. With Edward Deeds he founded Delco . 1910; in 1916 Delco became a subsidiary of General Motors Corp., and Kettering served as vice president and director of research for GM (1920-47). Many of his inventions were instrumental in the evolution of the modern automobile, including the first electric starter (1912), antiknock fuels, leaded gasoline, quick-drying lacquer finishes (with Thomas Midgley, Jr.), the high-speed, two-cycle diesel engine, and a revolutionary high-compression engine (1951). He later cofounded the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York City
Christine Ladd-Franklin
orig. Christine Ladd born Dec. 1, 1847, Windsor, Conn., U.S. died March 5, 1930, New York, N.Y. U.S. scientist and logician. She fulfilled Ph.D. requirements at Johns Hopkins University in the 1880s, but, because women candidates were not recognized, she was not awarded her degree until 1926. In symbolic logic, she reduced syllogistic reasoning to an inconsistent triad with the introduction of the antilogism, a form that made the testing of deductions easier. The Ladd-Franklin theory of colour vision stressed increasing colour differentiation with evolution and assumed a photochemical model for the visual system. Her principal works are The Algebra of Logic (1883), The Nature of Color Sensation (1925), and Color and Color Theories (1929)
E Franklin Frazier
born Sept. 24, 1894, Baltimore, Md., U.S. died May 17, 1962, Washington, D.C. U.S. sociologist. Frazier studied at Howard and Clark universities. At Morehouse College he organized the Atlanta University School of Social Work (for African Americans). His controversial article "The Pathology of Race Prejudice" (1927) forced him to leave Morehouse; he obtained a Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1931, then taught at Fisk University (1929-34) and Howard University (1934-59). His The Negro Family in the United States (1939) is among the first sociological works on blacks researched and written by an African American
Edward Franklin Albee
born March 12, 1928, Virginia, U.S. U.S. playwright. He was the adopted grandson and namesake of a well-known vaudeville theatre manager. His first one-act play, The Zoo Story (1959), and other early plays, including The Sandbox (1960) and The American Dream (1961), were characteristic of the Theatre of the Absurd. His Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1962; film, 1966) was widely acclaimed. He won Pulitzer prizes for A Delicate Balance (1966), Seascape (1975), and Three Tall Women (1991). He has also adapted other writers' works for the stage, including Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita (1981)
Edward Franklin Frazier
born Sept. 24, 1894, Baltimore, Md., U.S. died May 17, 1962, Washington, D.C. U.S. sociologist. Frazier studied at Howard and Clark universities. At Morehouse College he organized the Atlanta University School of Social Work (for African Americans). His controversial article "The Pathology of Race Prejudice" (1927) forced him to leave Morehouse; he obtained a Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1931, then taught at Fisk University (1929-34) and Howard University (1934-59). His The Negro Family in the United States (1939) is among the first sociological works on blacks researched and written by an African American
George Franklin Edmunds
born Feb. 1, 1828, Richmond, Vt., U.S. died Feb. 27, 1919, Pasadena, Calif. U.S. senator and expert on constitutional law. Despite little formal education, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1849. He was a Republican member (1854-59) and speaker (1856-59) of the Vermont House of Representatives and a member and president pro tem (1861-62) of the Vermont Senate. He was appointed to the U.S. Senate in 1866 and served until 1891; he was chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee (1872-79; 1882-91) and president pro tem of the Senate (1883-85). Edmunds was active in the impeachment (1868) of President Andrew Johnson and was a founding member of the commission that decided the election of 1876. The act for the suppression of polygamy (1882) bears his name, and he was principal author of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
Gertrude Franklin Atherton
{i} (1857-1948) United States author (also known as Gertrude Franklin Horn)
Gertrude Franklin Horn
{i} Gertrude Franklin Atherton (1857-1948), United States author
Gustavus Franklin Swift
born June 24, 1839, West Sandwich, Mass., U.S. died March 29, 1903, Chicago, Ill. U.S. meatpacker. Swift started as a butcher's helper at age 14 and by 1859 was operating his own butcher shop. In 1872 he became the partner of a Boston meat dealer; three years later he transferred their cattle-buying operations to Chicago. Believing profits would increase if fresh meat rather than live cattle were shipped from Chicago, he had a refrigerator car designed and made his first shipment in 1877. With his brother he formed Swift & Co. (1885). During his 18 years as president, its capitalization rose from $300,000 to $25 million. Like his rivals Philip D. Armour and Nelson Morris, Swift was a leader in byproduct utilization, entering related businesses such as soap, glue, fertilizer, and margarine
John Hope Franklin
born Jan. 2, 1915, Rentiesville, Okla., U.S. U.S. historian. He attended Fisk University and received graduate degrees from Harvard and has taught at many colleges and universities, including Howard, Chicago, and Duke. He first gained international attention with From Slavery to Freedom (1947). He helped fashion the legal brief that led to the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision. He was the first black president of the American Historical Association (1978-79) and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1995
Jr. William Franklin Graham
in full William Franklin Graham, Jr. born Nov. 7, 1918, Charlotte, N.C., U.S. U.S. Christian evangelist. The son of a dairy farmer, he underwent a conversion experience at age 16 during a revival. After attending Bob Jones College and the Florida Bible Institute, he was ordained a Southern Baptist clergyman in 1940. He later earned a degree in anthropology from Wheaton College. He won numerous converts with his tent revivals and radio broadcasts, and by 1950 he had become fundamentalism's leading spokesman. He led a series of widely televised international revival crusades through the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association in Minneapolis, Minn., and he enjoyed close associations with a series of U.S. presidents. Graham and his wife, Ruth, were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1996
Lewis Franklin Jr. Powell
born Sept. 19, 1907, Suffolk, Va., U.S. died Aug. 25, 1998, Richmond, Va. U.S. jurist. After studying law at Washington and Lee University and Harvard University, he returned to practice law in Virginia. As chairman of the Richmond school board, he oversaw peaceful school integration in 1959; he later chaired the state board of education and served as president of the American Bar Association. Widely respected in legal circles, he was nominated to the Supreme Court of the United States by Pres. Richard Nixon in 1971; he took his seat in 1972 and served until 1987. He adopted moderate-to-liberal positions on civil rights, affirmative action, and separation of church and state, though his views on law enforcement were conservative
Rosalind Elsie Franklin
born July 25, 1920, London, Eng. died April 16, 1958, London British biologist. After graduating from the University of Cambridge, she conducted important experimental work for the coal and coke industries. She later produced the X-ray diffraction pictures that allowed James D. Watson and Francis Crick to deduce that the three-dimensional form of DNA was a double helix. In studies of the tobacco mosaic virus, she helped show that its RNA is located in its protein rather than in its central cavity and that this RNA is a single-stranded helix rather than the double helix found in the DNA of bacterial viruses and higher organisms. Her death from cancer at age 37 probably cost her a share of the 1962 Nobel Prize awarded to Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
Rosalind Franklin
born July 25, 1920, London, Eng. died April 16, 1958, London British biologist. After graduating from the University of Cambridge, she conducted important experimental work for the coal and coke industries. She later produced the X-ray diffraction pictures that allowed James D. Watson and Francis Crick to deduce that the three-dimensional form of DNA was a double helix. In studies of the tobacco mosaic virus, she helped show that its RNA is located in its protein rather than in its central cavity and that this RNA is a single-stranded helix rather than the double helix found in the DNA of bacterial viruses and higher organisms. Her death from cancer at age 37 probably cost her a share of the 1962 Nobel Prize awarded to Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
benjamin franklin bridge
a suspension bridge across the Delaware River
franklin

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    [ 'fra[ng]-kl&n ] (noun.) 14th century. From Middle English frankelein (“freeholder”), from Anglo-Norman fraunclein (“a landowner of free, but not noble birth”), from fraunc (“free”), of Germanic origin, from Frankish *Frank (“freeman”) + -lein (“-ling”), from Frankish *-linc (“-ling”), from Proto-Germanic *-lingaz. Cognate with Old High German Franko (“Frank”), Old High German -ling (“-ling”). More at frank, -ling.

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