orig. Israel ben Eliezer born 1700, probably Tluste, Podolia, Pol. died 1760, Medzhibozh Charismatic founder of Hasidism ( 1750). An orphan, he worked in synagogues and yeshivas, and when he retired to the Carpathian Mountains to engage in mystical speculation he gained a reputation as a baal shem, or healer. From 1736 he lived in the village of Medzhibozh and devoted himself to spiritual pursuits. He was widely known as the Besh, an acronym of Baal Shem ov. He rejected the asceticism of older rabbis and focused on communion with God, service of God in everyday tasks, and rescue of the sparks of divinity that, according to the Kabbala, are trapped in the material world. His discourses during Sabbath meals have been preserved; he left no writings of his own. He made a point of conversing with simple working people. Hasidism brought about a social and religious upheaval in Judaism, establishing a mode of worship marked by new rituals and religious ecstasy
In Judaism, a title bestowed on men who worked wonders and cures through secret knowledge of the names of God. The practice dates to the 11th century, long before the term was applied to certain rabbis and Kabbalists. They were numerous in 17th-and 18th-century eastern Europe, where they exorcised demons, inscribed amulets, and performed cures using herbs, folk remedies, and the Tetragrammaton. Because they combined faith healing with use of the Kabbala, they clashed with physicians, rabbis, and followers of the Haskala. See also Baal Shem Tov
[ 'shem ] (noun.) From Greek Σημ (Sēm), from Hebrew שם (Šēm).
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