empire

listen to the pronunciation of empire
Englisch - Türkisch
{i} imparatorluk

Onlar yaklaşık beş yüz yıl önce Peru'da imparatorluklarını kurdular. - They built their empire in Peru about five hundred years ago.

İmparatorluk bütün küçük devletleri yuttu. - The empire absorbed all the small states.

imparatorlukla idare sistemi
saray tarzında
imparatorluk ile ilgili
çok geniş topraklar üzerinde kurulan hâkimiyet
(isim) imparatorluk
inca empire
(Elektrik, Elektronik) İnka İmparatorluğu
ottoman empire
osmanlı devleti

Türkiye, Osmanlı Devleti'nin mirasçısıdır. - Turkey is the heir of Ottoman Empire.

decline of the ottoman empire
(Tarih) osmanlı'nın çöküşü
evil empire
şeytan imparatorluğu
found an empire
imparatorluk kurmak
ottoman empire
osmanlı imparatorluğu

Osmanlı imparatorluğunda birçok deli padişah vardı. - There were so many mad sultans in the Ottoman Empire.

Yahudiler, İspanyol Engizisyonundan kaçtılar ve onbeşinci asırda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'na sığındılar. - Jews fled the Spanish Inquisition and took shelter in Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century.

Achaemenid Empire
(Tarih) Ahameniş İmparatorluğu, Akamanış İmparatorluğu, Pers İmparatorluğu

Akamanış Hanedanı (Ahameniş Hanedanı ya da Pers İmparatorluğu), (Farsça: هخامنشیان Hah'āmanishiyān; M.Ö. 550 - M.Ö. 330).

Austro-Hungarian Empire
(Tarih) Avusturya-Macaristan İmparatorluğu
Holy Roman Empire
Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu
Khwarezmian Empire
Harezmşah Devleti

The Mongol army under Genghis Khan, generals and his sons crossed the Tien Shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the Khwarezmian Empire.

british empire
Britanya İmparatorluğu
empires
imparatorlukları

Geleceğin imparatorlukları aklın imparatorluklarıdır. - The empires of the future are the empires of the mind.

En güçlü imparatorlukların bile sonu gelir. - Even the mightiest of empires comes to an end.

gupta empire
(Tarih) Gupta İmparatorluğu (Hintçe: गुप्त राजवंश), aşağı yukarı M.S. 320'den 520'ye kadar Gupta Hanedanı tarafından yönetilen bir imparatorluk idi. Toprakları, günümüzdeki kuzey ve orta Hindistan, ve Pakistan'ın ve Bangladeş'in bazı bölgelerini kapsardı. Gupta İmparatorluğu dönemi bilim, matematik, gökbilim, din ve felsefedeki ilerlemeleri nedeniyle Hindistan'ın Altın Çağı olarak bilinir. Tarihçiler Gupta Hanedanı'nı, klasik uygarlığının bir modeli olarak Han Hanedanı, Tang Hanedanı ve Roma İmparatorluğu ile kıyaslarlar
mughal empire
(Tarih) Babür İmparatorluğu, Moğol İmparatorluğu
mughul empire
(Tarih) Babür imparatorluğu
ottoman empire
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu

Osmanlı imparatorluğunda birçok deli padişah vardı. - There were so many mad sultans in the Ottoman Empire.

Yahudiler, İspanyol Engizisyonundan kaçtılar ve onbeşinci asırda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'na sığındılar. - Jews fled the Spanish Inquisition and took shelter in Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century.

parthian empire
(Tarih) Part İmparatoırluğu
persian empire
(Tarih) Pers İmparatorluğu
roman empire
roma imparatorluğu
the empire state building
Empire State Building
the ottoman empire
Osmanlı imparatorluğu
Celestial Empire
{i} Çin imparatorluğu
Celestial Empire
(isim) Çin imparatorluğu
Eastern Empire
doğu roma imparatorluğu
austro hungarian empire
avusturya macaristan imparatorluğu
european hun empire
(Tarih) avrupa hun imparatorluğu
greater timur empire
(Tarih) büyük timur imparatorluğu
indian empire
(Tarih) hindistan imparatorluğu
service pay in ottoman empire
ulûfe
the Roman Empire
Roma İmparatorluğu
western hun empire
(Tarih) batı hun imparatorluğu
Englisch - Englisch
A political unit having an extensive territory or comprising a number of territories or nations and ruled by a single supreme authority
A group of states or other territories that owe allegiance to a foreign power
An expansive and wealthy corporation; e.g. "the McDonalds empire"
A state ruled by an emperor
{n} imperial power, command, rule
Supreme power; sovereignty; sway; dominion
a monarchy with an emperor as head of state
a group of countries under a single authority; "the British empire"
Any dominion; supreme control; governing influence; rule; sway; as, the empire of mind or of reason
a monarchy with an emperor as head of state the domain ruled by an emperor or empress
a group of countries ruled by just one of them
(om-peer): dress with a high waistline
> French Imperial style, corresponding to the dates of Napoleon's coronation as Emperor in 1804 through 1815
The dominion of an emperor; the territory or countries under the jurisdiction and dominion of an emperor (rarely of a king), usually of greater extent than a kingdom, always comprising a variety in the nationality of, or the forms of administration in, constituent and subordinate portions; as, the Austrian empire
{i} group of countries ruled over by an emperor or other sovereign
Refers to a style of interior decoration popular in the eighteenth century under Napoleon Bonaparte It is most associated with France although it did cross to America and influenced England's own Regency style It is grand and theatrical with a military influence drawn from Napoleon's many military campaigns Its characteristics include the lavish use of fabric from drapes at the window to whole tented rooms, day beds and chaise longues and motifs such as arrows, swans and bees - Napoleon's emblem
An empire is a number of individual nations that are all controlled by the government or ruler of one particular country. the Roman Empire
a group of diverse companies under common ownership and run as a single organization
Napoleonic (French 1804-1815) style based on classic Greek, Roman, and Egyptian designs Characterized by simple lines but luxurious materials
an eating apple that somewhat resembles a McIntosh; used as both an eating and a cooking apple a group of countries under a single authority; "the British empire"
the domain ruled by an emperor or empress
A design style inspired by the Napoleonic Empire, it includes heavy looking designs, classical design elements and combines straight lines and curves, as in sleigh beds
You can refer to a group of companies controlled by one person as an empire. the big Mondadori publishing empire. Austro Hungarian Empire Second Empire Baroque Second Empire style British empire Byzantine Empire Empire State Building Empire style Ghana empire Holy Roman Empire Majapahit empire Mali empire Mauryan empire Ottoman Empire Oyo empire Roman Republic and Empire Second Empire Songhai empire Songhay empire Srivijaya empire
an eating apple that somewhat resembles a McIntosh; used as both an eating and a cooking apple
(n ) gan, gahn
Any vast area under the power of one person; most commonly used in business, e.g. "the McDonalds empire"
Empire State
Nickname for the U.S. state of New York
Empire State Building
A skyscraper in New York City, the tallest in the world in 1931–72
Empire State
nickname for the state of New York (USA)
Empire State Building
the Empire State Building a famous very tall office building in New York City, which has 102 floors. It was built in 1931, and for many years it was the tallest building in the world. Steel-framed 102-story building designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon Associates and completed in New York City in 1931. At a height of 1,250 ft (381 m), it surpassed the Chrysler Building to become the highest structure in the world (until 1954). It is notable for its use of the setback
Empire State Building
large landmark building in New York City which was built in 1930 and consists of 102 floors
Empire day
anniversary of Queen Victoria's birth observed in Britain on May 24th
Empire style
Style of furniture and interior decoration that flourished in France during the First Empire (1804-14). It corresponds to the Regency style in England. Responding to the desire of Napoleon for a style inspired by imperial Rome, the architects Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853) decorated his state rooms with Classical styles of furniture and ornamental motifs, supplemented by sphinxes and palm leaves to commemorate his Egyptian campaigns. The style influenced the arts (Jacques-Louis David in painting, Antonio Canova in sculpture, the Arc de Triomphe in architecture) and fashion and spread quickly throughout Europe
empire city
{i} nickname of New York City (USA)
empire state
New York; a nickname alluding to its size and wealth
empire state of the south
Georgia; a nickname
empire state of the west
Missouri; a nickname
empire-building
attempts to get more power within the organization you work for
Achaemenid Empire
The empire ruled by the Achaemenid dynasty 550 BC–330 BC
British Empire
The United Kingdom together with its dominions, colonies, dependencies, trust territories and protectorates; became the Commonwealth of Nations following the independence of many of its constituent countries
Byzantine Empire
An ancient Greek-speaking empire of Eastern Europe, capital Constantinople, ended in 1453
Holy Roman Empire
A political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe from at least 962 CE until 1806
Ottoman Empire
A large empire which began as a Turkish sultanate centered on modern Turkey; founded in the 13th century, it lasted until the end of World War I

This was a factor in one of the major long-term weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire, namely the relatively small size of its Turkish population, which limited its ability to colonize conquered regions. In no meaningful sense was Anatolia the empire's metropolis. This might seem strange to Europeans, who are and always were much inclined to use the words Ottoman and Turkish interchangeably when describing the empire.

Persian Empire
The empire ruled by the Sassanid dynasty 224–651 CE

The geographical limits of the Sassanian or Later Persian Empire were so nearly identical with those of its predecessor, the Parthian, .

Persian Empire
The empire ruled by the Achaemenid dynasty 550–330 BCE

We know how Darius got the Persian Empire from the rest of his fellow Peers, from the first neighing of his generous Steed.

Roman Empire
An empire that used to exist between 85 BCE and 476 CE; it encompassed territories stretching from Britain and Germany to North Africa and the Persian Gulf
Russian Empire
The name of the Russian state in 1721-1917
ottoman empire
The Turkish government that controlled the entire area from 1517 to 1917
Achaemenid Empire
(Tarih) The Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BCE), also known as the Persian Empire, was the successor state of the Median Empire, ruling over significant portions of what would become Greater Iran. The Persian and the Median Empire taken together are also known as the Medo-Persian Empire, which encompassed the combined territories of several earlier empires
Khwarezmian Empire
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin
mauryan empire
(ñ 321–ñ 185 BC) In ancient India, a state centred at Pataliputra (later Patna) near the junction of the Son and Ganges (Ganga) rivers. After the death of Alexander the Great, Chandragupta Maurya (Candra Gupta), the dynastic founder, carved out an empire that encompassed most of the subcontinent except for the Tamil south. Ashoka (r. ñ 269–232 BC), the famous Buddhist emperor, left stone edicts that include some of the oldest deciphered original texts of India. The empire declined after Ashoka's death, but in its heyday it was an efficient and highly organized autocracy. See also Gupta dynasty; Nanda dynasty
parthian empire
(Tarih) The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire (Modern Persian: اشکانیان Ashkanian) after the eponymous founder, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in the Ancient Near East. It was founded in the mid-3rd century BC by Arsaces I of Parthia, leader of the Parni tribe, when he conquered the Parthia region ("roughly western Khurasan" in Iran's northeast), then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Greek Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Dynasty in China, quickly became a center of trade and commerce
seleucid empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Great's dominion. At its greatest extent, the Empire comprised central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, Turkmenistan, Pamir and the Indus valley (Pakistan)
Austro-Hungarian Empire
empire ruled by the Hapsburg family until 1918 including the central area of Europe
British Empire
The geographic and political units formerly under British control, including dominions, colonies, dependencies, trust territories, and protectorates. At the height of its power in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the empire comprised about one quarter of the world's land area and population and encompassed territories on every continent, including the British Isles, British North America, British West Indies, British Guiana, British West Africa, British East Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. the group of countries formerly connected with and controlled by Great Britain, which was at its largest at the time of the World War I, when it included 25 per cent of the world's area. Worldwide system of dependencies colonies, protectorates, and other territories that over a span of three centuries came under the British government. Territorial acquisition began in the early 17th century with a group of settlements in North America and West Indian, East Indian, and African trading posts founded by private individuals and trading companies. In the 18th century the British took Gibraltar, established colonies along the Atlantic seacoast, and began to add territory in India. With its victory in the French and Indian War (1763), it secured Canada and the eastern Mississippi Valley and gained supremacy in India. From the late 18th century it began to build power in Malaya and acquired the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon (see Sri Lanka), and Malta. The English settled Australia in 1788, and subsequently New Zealand. Aden was secured in 1839, and Hong Kong in 1842. Britain went on to control the Suez Canal 1875-1956. In the 19th-century European partition of Africa, Britain acquired Nigeria, Egypt, the territories that would become British East Africa, and part of what would become the Union (later Republic) of South Africa. After World War I, Britain secured mandates to German East Africa, part of the Cameroons, part of Togo, German South-West Africa, Mesopotamia, Palestine, and part of the German Pacific islands. Prior to 1783, Britain claimed full authority over colonial legislatures; after the U.S. gained independence, Britain gradually evolved a system of self-government for some colonies, as set forth in Lord Durham's report of 1839. Dominion status was given to Canada (1867), Australia (1901), New Zealand (1907), the Union of South Africa (1910), and the Irish Free State (1921). Britain declared war on Germany in 1914 on behalf of the entire empire; after World War I the dominions signed the peace treaties themselves and joined the League of Nations as independent states. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognized them as independent countries "within the British empire," referring to the "British Commonwealth of Nations." At the time of its founding, the Commonwealth consisted of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, the Irish Free State (withdrew in 1949; see Ireland), Newfoundland (became a Canadian province in 1949), New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa (withdrew in 1961). After World War II, with "British" no longer officially used, the Commonwealth was joined by the following countries: India, Pakistan (1947; Pakistan withdrew in 1972, but rejoined in 1989); Ceylon (1948; now Sri Lanka); Ghana (1957); Nigeria (1960); Cypress, Sierra Leone (1961); Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Western Samoa (1962); Kenya, Malaysia (1963); Malawi, Malta, Tanzania, Zambia (1964); Gambia, Singapore (1965); Barbados, Botswana, Guyana, Lesotho (1966); Mauritius, Nauru (special status), Swaziland (1968); Tonga (1970); Bangladesh (1972); Bahamas (1973); Grenada (1974); Papua New Guinea (1975); Seychelles (1976); Solomon Islands, Tuvalu (special status), Dominica (1978); St. Lucia, Kiribati, St. Vincent and the Grenadines (1979); Zimbabwe, Vanuatu (1980); Belize, Antigua and Barbuda (1981); Maldives (1982); St. Kitts-Nevis (1983); Brunei (1984); South Africa (rejoined 1994); Cameroon, Mozambique (1995). The last significant British colony, Hong Kong, was returned to Chinese sovereignty in 1997
British Empire
confederation of nations united under the British crown from the end of the Industrial Revolution to the middle of the 20th century
Byzantine Empire
Eastern Roman Empire, successor to the Roman Empire after the separation of the eastern and western sections of the empire in 395 AD (lasted till 1453 AD)
Byzantine Empire
The eastern part of the later Roman Empire, dating from 330 when Constantine I rebuilt Byzantium and made it his capital. Its extent varied greatly over the centuries, but its core remained the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. The empire collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Empire, southeastern and southern Europe and western Asia. It began as the city of Byzantium, which had grown from an ancient Greek colony founded on the European side of the Bosporus. The city was taken in AD 330 by Constantine I, who refounded it as Constantinople. The area at this time was generally termed the Eastern Roman Empire. On the death of Constantine in 395, Theodosius I divided the empire between his two sons. The fall of Rome in 476 ended the western half of the Roman Empire; the eastern half continued as the Byzantine Empire, with Constantinople as its capital. The eastern realm differed from the west in many respects: heir to the civilization of the Hellenistic era, it was more commercial and more urban. Its greatest emperor, Justinian (r. 527-565), reconquered some of western Europe, built the Hagia Sophia, and issued the basic codification of Roman law. After his death the empire weakened. Though its rulers continued to style themselves "Roman" long after Justinian's death, "Byzantine" more accurately describes the medieval empire. The long controversy over iconoclasm within the eastern church prepared it for the break with the Roman church (see Schism of 1054). During the controversy, Arabs and Seljuq Turks increased their power in the area. In the late 11th century, Alexius I Comnenus sought help from Venice and the pope; these allies turned the ensuing Crusades into plundering expeditions. In the Fourth Crusade the Venetians took over Constantinople and established a line of Latin emperors. Recaptured by Byzantine exiles in 1261, the empire was now little more than a large city-state. In the 14th century the Ottoman Turks began to encroach; their extended siege of Constantinople ended in 1453, when the last emperor died fighting on the city walls and the area came under Ottoman control
Celestial Empire
An old name for China or the Chinese Empire
Celestial Empire
{i} Chinese Empire from 1815-1825
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
a series of six historical books written by Edward Gibbon, which tell the story of the Roman Empire from the 1st century AD to the 15th century. It is one of the greatest historical works ever written in English (1776-88)
Eastern Empire
The Byzantine Empire
Eastern Empire
Byzantine Empire, East Roman Empire, successor to the Roman Empire after the separation of the eastern and western sections of the empire in 395 AD (lasted till 1453 AD)
Eastern Roman Empire
Byzantine Empire, successor to the Roman Empire after the separation of the eastern and western sections of the empire in 395 AD (lasted till 1453 AD)
Ghana empire
First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (7th-13th century). Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali, it acted as intermediary between Arab and Berber salt traders to the north and gold and ivory producers to the south. Gold was secured through barter from those living at the empire's southern limit and exchanged in the capital for commodities, especially salt. As the empire grew richer it extended its reach, incorporating gold-producing southern lands and cities to the north. The king exacted tribute from the princes of subject tribes. Ghana began to decline with the rise of the Muslim Almoravids; the Almoravid leader Abu Bakr seized the Ghanaian capital of Kumbi in 1076. The empire's subject peoples began to break away, and in 1240 the empire's remains were incorporated into the Sundiata empire of Mali
Holy Roman Empire
A loosely federated European political entity that began with the papal coronation of the German king Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until Francis II's renunciation of the title at the instigation of Napoleon in 1806. The empire was troubled by papal-secular squabbles over authority and after the 13th century by the rising ambitions of nationalistic states. By 1273 the empire consisted primarily of the Hapsburg domains in Austria and Spain. a group of European states which included parts of France, Germany, Austria, and Italy, and which were ruled by an emperor. It was established by Charlemagne in 800, and continued until 1806. For most of the period from the 13th century to the 19th century, its ruling family were the Hapsburgs. German Heiliges Römisches Reich Realm of varying extent in medieval and modern western and central Europe. Traditionally believed to have been established by Charlemagne, who was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, the empire lasted until the renunciation of the imperial title by Francis II in 1806. The reign of the German Otto I (the Great), who greatly enlarged the empire and revived the imperial title after Carolingian decline, is sometimes regarded as the beginning of the empire. The name Holy Roman Empire (not adopted until the reign of Frederick I Barbarossa) reflected Charlemagne's claim that his empire was the successor of the Roman Empire and that this temporal power was augmented by his status as God's principal vicar in the temporal realm (parallel to the pope's in the spiritual realm). The empire's core consisted of Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Moravia. Switzerland, the Netherlands, and northern Italy sometimes formed part of it; France, Poland, Hungary, and Denmark were initially included, and Britain and Spain were nominal components. From the mid-11th century the emperors engaged in a great struggle with the papacy for dominance, and, particularly under the powerful Hohenstaufen dynasty (1138-1254), they fought with the popes over control of Italy. Rudolf I became the first Habsburg emperor in 1273, and from 1438 the Habsburg dynasty held the throne permanently. Until 1356 the emperor was chosen by the German princes; thereafter he was formally elected by the electors. Outside their personal hereditary domains, emperors shared power with the imperial diet. During the Reformation the German princes largely defected to the Protestant camp, opposing the Catholic emperor, and, after 1562, emperors were no longer crowned by the pope. At the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia recognized the individual sovereignty of the empire's states; the empire thereafter became a loose federation of states and the title of emperor principally honorific. In the 18th century, issues of imperial succession resulted in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. The greatly weakened empire was brought to an end by the victories of Napoleon. See also Guelphs and Ghibellines; Investiture Controversy; Concordat of Worms
Incan Empire
empire in western South America which was created by the Incans and existed during the 15th and 16th centuries
Majapahit empire
(13th-16th century) Last Indianized kingdom in Indonesia, based in eastern Java. It was founded by Vijaya, a prince of Singhasari who collaborated with the invading Mongol troops of Kublai Khan (see Kertanagara) to defeat a rival and then drove the Mongols out. Some scholars believe that Majapahit territory included present-day Indonesia and part of Malaysia; others maintain that it was confined to eastern Java and Bali. It reached its height in the mid-14th century under King Hayam Wuruk and his prime minister Gajah Mada. The rise of the Islamic states along the northern Java coast brought the empire to an end
Mali empire
Trading empire that flourished in West Africa in the 13th-16th centuries. It developed from the state of Kangaba on the upper Niger River and was probably founded before AD 1000. The Malinke inhabitants of Kangaba acted as middlemen in the gold trade in ancient Ghana. Growing in the 13th century under the leadership of Sundiata, it continued to expand in the 14th century and absorbed Gao and Timbuktu. Its boundaries extended to the Hausa people in the east and to Fulani and Tukulor peoples in the west. It eventually outgrew its political and military strength, and many of its subject areas revolted. By 1550 it had ceased to be an important political entity
Mauryan empire
( 321- 185 BC) In ancient India, a state centred at Pataliputra (later Patna) near the junction of the Son and Ganges (Ganga) rivers. After the death of Alexander the Great, Chandragupta Maurya (Candra Gupta), the dynastic founder, carved out an empire that encompassed most of the subcontinent except for the Tamil south. Ashoka (r. 269-232 BC), the famous Buddhist emperor, left stone edicts that include some of the oldest deciphered original texts of India. The empire declined after Ashoka's death, but in its heyday it was an efficient and highly organized autocracy. See also Gupta dynasty; Nanda dynasty
Ottoman Empire
A vast Turkish sultanate of southwest Asia, northeast Africa, and southeast Europe. It was founded in the 13th century by Osman I and ruled by his descendants until its dissolution after World War I. Originally a small state controlled by Ottoman or Osmanli Turks, it spread rapidly, superseding the Byzantine Empire in the east. a large empire, based in Turkey and with its capital in Istanbul, which also included large parts of Eastern Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It continued from the 13th century until after World War I, but it was most powerful in the 16th century, at the time of its most famous ruler, Suleiman. Former empire centred in Anatolia. It was named for Osman I (1259-1326), a Turkish Muslim prince in Bithynia who conquered neighbouring regions once held by the Seljq dynasty and founded his own ruling line 1300. Ottoman troops first invaded Europe in 1345, sweeping through the Balkans. Though defeated by Timur in 1402, by 1453 the Ottomans, under Mehmed II (the Conquerer; 1429-81), had destroyed the Byzantine Empire and captured its capital, Constantinople (now Istanbul), which henceforth served as the Ottoman capital. Under Selim I (1467-1520) and his son Süleyman I (the Magnificent), the Ottoman Empire became the largest in the world. Süleyman took control of parts of Persia, most of Arabia, and large sections of Hungary and the Balkans. By the early 16th century the Ottomans had also defeated the Mamlk dynasty in Syria and Egypt; and their navy under Barbarossa soon seized control of much of the Barbary Coast. Beginning with Selim, the Ottoman sultans also held the title of caliph, the spiritual head of Islam. Ottoman power began to decline in the late 16th century after the imperial fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). Ottoman forces repeatedly besieged Vienna. Their final effort at taking the Austrian capital in 1683 failed. That failure and subsequent losses led them to relinquish Hungary in 1699. Corruption and decadence gradually undermined the government. In the 18th century the Russo-Turkish Wars and wars with Austria and Poland further weakened the empire, which in the 19th century came to be called the "sick man of Europe." Most of its remaining European territory was lost in the Balkan Wars (1912-13). It sided with Germany in World War I (1914-18); postwar treaties dissolved the empire, and in 1922 the sultanate was abolished by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who proclaimed the Republic of Turkey the following year. See also Janissary; Turk; Young Turks
Oyo empire
Yoruba state in present-day southwestern Nigeria that dominated the land between the Volta and Niger rivers in 1650-1750. Two waves of immigrants probably entered the area AD 700-1000, and the second wave formed a state at Oyo. This state became preeminent among Yoruba states because of its good trading position, natural resources, and industrious inhabitants. Though at first less powerful than its neighbours, by the end of the 16th century its ruler, Orompoto, had used trade-derived wealth to maintain a trained army. In the 18th century Oyo subjugated the Dahomey kingdom and had begun trading with European merchants at Dahomey's ports. Oyo's wealth increased, but Abiodun (r. 1770-90) neglected the army and the possibilities for territorial expansion, thus weakening central authority for his successor. Soon after 1800 Oyo was captured by Fulani Muslims from Hausaland. See also Hausa
Roman Empire
At its greatest extent it encompassed territories stretching from Britain and Germany to North Africa and the Persian Gulf. After 395 it was split into the Byzantine Empire and the Western Roman Empire, which rapidly sank into anarchy under the onslaught of barbarian invaders from the north and east. The last emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus (born c. 461), was deposed by Goths in 476, the traditional date for the end of the empire. the countries of Europe, north Africa, and western Asia that were ruled by the ancient Romans from around 44 BC until AD 395, when the empire was divided into two parts. The Western Roman Empire continued until 476, and the Eastern Roman Empire continued until the 15th century. Holy Roman Empire, the
Roman Empire
An empire that succeeded the Roman Republic during the time of Augustus, who ruled from 27
Roman Empire
early empire which ruled over countries around the Mediterranean Sea
Roman Republic and Empire
Ancient state that once ruled the Western world. It centred on the city of Rome from the founding of the republic (509 BC) through the establishment of the empire (27 BC) to the final eclipse of the empire in the west (5th century AD). The republic's government consisted of two consuls, the Senate, and magistrates, originally all patricians, and two popular plebeian assemblies: the military centuriate assembly and the civilian tribal assembly. A written code, the Law of the Twelve Tables (451 BC), became the basis of Roman private law. By the end of the 3rd century BC, Roman territory included all of Italy; by the late republican period it encompassed most of western Europe, northern Africa, and the Near East, organized into provinces. After a period of civil war, Julius Caesar took power as dictator. Following his assassination (44 BC), conflict among the triumvirs Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian ultimately resulted in Octavian's victory (31) and his accession as Emperor Augustus (r. 27 BC-AD 14). The imperial government, a principate, combined aspects of the republic and a monarchy. In AD 395 the empire split into eastern and western halves, with the west under severe pressure from the barbarians. Rome was sacked in 410 by the Visigoths, and the western empire fell to German invaders in 476; the east continued as the Byzantine Empire until 1453. See table
Second Empire
A heavily ornate style of furniture, architecture, and decoration that was developed in France in the middle of the 19th century. (1852-70) Period in France under the rule of Emperor Napoleon III (the original empire having been that of Napoleon). In its early years (1852-59), the empire was authoritarian but enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign policy. Liberal reforms were gradually introduced after 1859, but measures such as a low-tariff treaty with Britain alienated French businessmen, and political liberalization led to increased opposition to the government. In 1870 a new constitution establishing a quasi-parliamentary regime was widely approved, but France's defeat at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War was followed by an uprising in Paris on Sept. 4, 1870. This resulted in the overthrow of the government, the abdication of Napoleon III, and the end of the Second Empire
Songhai empire
or Songhay empire Ancient Muslim state, West Africa. Centred on the middle Niger River in what is now central Mali, it eventually extended to the Atlantic coast and into Niger and Nigeria. Established by the Songhai people AD 800, it reached its greatest extent in the 16th century before falling to Moroccan forces in 1591. Its important cities were Gao and Timbuktu
Srivijaya empire
(fl. 7th-13th centuries) Maritime and commercial kingdom in the Malay Archipelago. It originated on the island of Sumatra and soon came to control the Strait of Malacca. Its power was based on its control of international sea trade; it had relations with other island states and with China and India. It was also a centre for Mahayana Buddhism and a stopping place for Chinese pilgrims traveling to India. It was overcome by forces of the Cola dynasty in 1025 and lost power gradually thereafter
Western Empire
The western section of the Roman Empire, first set apart in 286 by Emperor Diocletian and later (395) formalized after the death of Theodosius I. It comprised Italy, Spain, Gaul, Britain, Illyricum, and northern Africa and lasted until 476
british empire
formerly the United Kingdom and all the territories under its control; reached its greatest extent at the end of World War I; "the sun never sets on the British Empire
byzantine empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395
egyptian empire
an ancient empire west of Israel; centered on the Nile River and ruled by a Pharaoh; figured in many events described in the Old Testament
empires
plural of empire
hohenzollern empire
the Reich when Hohenzollern monarchs ruled Germany (from 1871 to 1919)
holy roman empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne; a continuation of the Roman Empire in Europe
mogul empire
an empire established by the Mogul conquerors of India that reigned from 1526 to 1857
ottoman empire
a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe; created by the Ottoman Turks in the 13th century and lasted until the end of World War I; although initially small it expanded until it superseded the Byzantine Empire
ottoman empire
a former Turkish empire that was founded about 1300 by Osman and reached its greatest territorial extent under Suleiman in the 16th century; collapsed after World War I
ottoman empire
Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeeded Seljuk Turks following retreat of Mongols (p 503)
ottoman empire
The political and geographical entity governed by the Muslim Ottoman Turks Their empire was centered in present-day Turkey, and extended its influence into southeastern Europe as well as the Middle East Driven from their Asiatic homelands by the Mongols, the Ottoman Turks pressed into the Balkan provinces of the Byzantine Empire In the fourteenth century, they began their conquest of Byzantine territory Europe was only temporarily able to resist their advance: the turning point came at the Battle of Varna in 1444 when a European coalition army failed to stop the Turkish advance Only Constantinople remained in Byzantine hands and its fall in 1453 seemed inevitable after Varna The Turks subsequently established an empire in Anatolia and southeastern Europe which lasted until the early twentieth century
persian empire
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
roman empire
an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire; at its peak lands in Europe and Africa and Asia were ruled by ancient Rome
second empire
the imperial government of Napoleon III in France from 1852-1870
the Empire
British Empire
the fall of the empire
disappearance of the empire from the face of the earth, narrowing the borders of the empire
western roman empire
the western part after the Roman Empire was divided in 395; it lasted only until 476
empire
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