# confounding

İngilizce - İngilizce
Said of two or more possible causes of an observed statistically significant effect when statistical analysis cannot determine which is the cause
Occurs when the independent variable of interest systematically covaries with a second, unintended independent variable
that confounds or contradicts or confuses
A confounding design is one where some treatment effects (main or interactions) are estimated by the same linear combination of the experimental observations as some blocking effects In this case, the treatment effect and the blocking effect are said to be confounded Confounding is also used as a general term to indicate that the value of a main effect estimate comes from both the main effect itself and also contamination or bias from higher order interactions Note: Confounding designs naturally arise when full factorial designs have to be run in blocks and the block size is smaller than the number of different treatment combinations They also occur whenever a fractional factorial design is chosen instead of a full factorial design
When the differences between the treatment and control groups other than the treatment produce differences in response that are not distinguishable from the effect of the treatment, those differences between the groups are said to be confounded with the effect of the treatment (if any) For example, prominent statisticians questioned whether differences between individuals that led some to smoke and others not to (rather than the act of smoking itself) were responsible for the observed difference in the frequencies with which smokers and non-smokers contract various illnesses If that were the case, those factors would be confounded with the effect of smoking Confounding is quite likely to affect observational studies and experiments that are not randomized Confounding tends to be decreased by randomization See also Simpson's Paradox
The distortion of an apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome For example, a study might suggest that alcohol intake is associated with a higher risk of heart disease, but this apparent relationship is seen because those who drink alcohol are also more inclined to smoke When their smoking is taken into consideration, the relationship between alcohol intake and heart disease disappears Congenital: referring to conditions that are present at birth
A relationship between 2 (or more) variables which prevents their effects from being evaluated separately Confounding can affect either Independent or Dependent variables and causes problems in interpreting which variable caused the experimental effect to occur
A measured effect attributed to a variable that is actually due to an unmeasured co-variable
Finding an association for the wrong reason
present participle of confound
The distortion of a measure of the effect of an exposure (eg to therapy involving the proposed drug) on the risk of an outcome under investigation brought about by the association of the exposure with other factor(s) that can influence the outcome
confounding variable
An extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlates (positively or negatively) with both the dependent variable and the independent variable
confounding variable
(İstatistik) A confounding variable (also confounding factor, lurking variable, a confound, or confounder) is an extraneous variable in a statistical or research model that should have been experimentally controlled, but was not
confound
To cause to be ashamed; to abash

His actions confounded the skeptics.

confound
To make something worse

Don't confound the situation by yelling.

confound
To defeat
confound
To bring to ruination
confound
{v} to mix, perplex, destory, amaze
confound
To destroy; to ruin; to waste
confound
To mingle and blend, so that different elements can not be distinguished; to confuse
confound
To confuse; to mix up; to puzzle
confound
If someone or something confounds you, they make you feel surprised or confused, often by showing you that your opinions or expectations of them were wrong. The choice of Governor may confound us all
confound
To throw into confusion or disorder; to perplex; to strike with amazement; to dismay
confound
To damn
confound
be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly; "These questions confuse even the experts"; "This question completely threw me"; "This question befuddled even the teacher"
confound
To fail to see the difference; to mix up; to confuse right and wrong
confound
{f} amaze, stun, confuse, bewilder; fail to discern a difference, mix up
confound
To frustrate
confound
To mistake for another; to identify falsely
confound
mistake one thing for another; "you are confusing me with the other candidate"; "I mistook her for the secretary"
confounding

kınfaundîng

## Telaffuz

/kənˈfoundəɴɢ/ /kənˈfaʊndɪŋ/

## Etimoloji

[ k&n-'faund, kän- ] (transitive verb.) 14th century. Middle English, from Middle French confondre, from Latin confundere to pour together, confuse, from com- + fundere to pour; more at FOUND.

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