philosophy

listen to the pronunciation of philosophy
الإنجليزية - التركية
{i} felsefe

Ağabeyim felsefesi üzerine bir otoritedir. - My elder brother is an authority on philosophy.

Horatio, Cennette ve Dünyada sizin felsefenizde hayal edilenden çok daha fazla şeyler vardır. - There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.

ilm-i hikmet
yaşam felsefesi
{i} dünya görüşü
{i} kalenderlik
{i} soyut düşünüş
ağır başlılık
{i} filozofi
pratik zekâ
{i} kendi halindelik
{i} sakinlik
tabiat bilgisi
düşünbilim
philosophy of education
eğitim felsefesi
philosophy of language
(Dilbilim,Eğitim) dil felsefesi
philosophy of life
(Felsefe) yaşama felsefesi
philosophy of nature
(Felsefe) doğa felsefesi
philosophy department
felsefe bölümü
philosophy of history
tarih felsefesi
philosophy about
felsefesi hakkında
philosophy.
felsefesi
philosophy and religion
felsefe ve din
philosophy and science
felsefe ve bilim
philosophy and social science
felsefe ve sosyal bilimler
philosophy book
felsefe kitabı
philosophy club
felsefe kulübü
philosophy club
felsefe klübü
philosophy doctrines
felsefe doktrinleri
philosophy in literature
edebiyatta felsefe
philosophy in the middle ages
(Eğitim) ortaçağ da felsefe
philosophy of action
(Eğitim) edim felsefesi
philosophy of ethics
ahlak felsefesi
philosophy of life
hayat felsefesi
philosophy of life
dünya görüşü
philosophy of logic
(Eğitim) mantık felsefesi
philosophy of physics
(Eğitim) fizik felsefesi
philosophy of socaial sciences
(Eğitim) toplum bilimleri felsefesi
philosophy of social sciences
(Eğitim) sosyal bilimler felsefesi
philosophy teacher
felsefeci
analytical philosophy
analitik felsefe
continental philosophy
(Eğitim) kıta avrupası felsefesi
eastern philosophy
doğu felsefesi
introduction to philosophy i
(Eğitim) felsefeye giriş
revolution philosophy
devrim felsefesi
department of philosophy
filozofi bölümü
existentialist philosophy
varoluşçuluk
moral philosophy
ahlak bilimi
moral philosophy
ahlak ilmi
natural philosophy
tabiat bilgisi
natural philosophy
fen
eudaemonistic (philosophy)
eudaemonistic (felsefe)
natural philosophy
doğal felsefe
political philosophy
siyaset felsefesi
adopt a philosophy
felsefe edinmek
advanced history of philosophy
(Eğitim) ileri felsefe tarihi
advanced philosophy of science
(Eğitim) ileri bilim felsefesi
ancient philosophy
(Eğitim) eskiçağ felsefesi
architecture and philosophy
mimarlık ve felsefe
communism and philosophy
(Politika, Siyaset) komünizm ve felsefe
current issues in philosophy
(Eğitim) güncel felsefe konuları
espouse a philosophy
felsefe edinmek
existential philosophy
(Sosyoloji, Toplumbilim) varoluş felsefesi
identity philosophy
(Felsefe) özdeşlik felsefesi
medical philosophy
(Tıp) tıbbi felsefe
modern philosophy
modern felsefesi
nursing philosophy
(Tıp) hemşirelik felsefesi
psychology and philosophy
(Pisikoloji, Ruhbilim) psikoloji ve felsefe
scottish philosophy
(Felsefe) iskoçya okulu
spontaneous philosophy
(Sosyoloji, Toplumbilim) kendiliğinden felsefe [althusser]
spontaneous philosophy
kendiliğinden felsefe
الإنجليزية - الإنجليزية
A comprehensive system of belief
A general principle (usually moral)
A broader branch of (non-applied) science
An academic discipline that seeks truth through reasoning rather than empiricism

Philosophy is often divided into five major branches: logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and aesthetics.

The love of wisdom
A view or outlook regarding fundamental principles underlying some domain

a philosophy of education.

the general principles, laws, or causes that furnish the rational explanation of anything
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
{n} knowledge moral or natural
Attention to existence marked by joy and a purpose to find and convey what is right in a rational way
n a discipline comprising as its core logic, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means a system of philosophical concepts
Literally, the love of, including the search after, wisdom; in actual usage, the knowledge of phenomena as explained by, and resolved into, causes and reasons, powers and laws
Practical wisdom; calmness of temper and judgment; equanimity; fortitude; stoicism; as, to meet misfortune with philosophy
From the Greek philosophia meaning love (philo) and the pursuit of knowledge (sophia), learning or wisdom; the ability to comprehend the manner in which things fit together
[3: History of Western Philosophy]; [3: Dictionary of philosophical terms and names]; [3: Philosophers]; [3: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]; [3: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]; [3: Berkeley University]; [3: Hanover edu]; [Kemerling's philosophy timeline ]
An academic discipline that is often divided into five major branches: logic; metaphysics; epistemology; ethics; and aesthetics
the systematic inquiry of the fundamental questions concerning, among other things, the nature of reality (metaphysics), the justification of belief (epistemology), and the conduct of life (ethcis)
Arts
Philosophy is the study or creation of theories about basic things such as the nature of existence, knowledge, and thought, or about how people should live. He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge. traditional Chinese philosophy
A treatise on philosophy
Explanation=? Methodology
the love and pursuit of wisdom
A philosophy is a particular theory that someone has about how to live or how to deal with a particular situation. The best philosophy is to change your food habits to a low-sugar, high-fibre diet. Critical examination of the rational grounds of our most fundamental beliefs and logical analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression of such beliefs. Philosophy may also be defined as reflection on the varieties of human experience, or as the rational, methodical, and systematic consideration of the topics that are of greatest concern to humanity. Philosophical inquiry is a central element in the intellectual history of many civilizations. Difficulty in achieving a consensus about the definition of the discipline partly reflects the fact that philosophers have frequently come to it from different fields and have preferred to reflect on different areas of experience. All the world's great religions have produced significant allied philosophical schools. Western philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas, George Berkeley, and Søren Kierkegaard regarded philosophy as a means of defending religion and dispelling the antireligious errors of materialism and rationalism. Pythagoras, René Descartes, and Bertrand Russell, among others, were primarily mathematicians whose views of reality and knowledge were influenced by mathematics. Figures such as Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Stuart Mill were mainly concerned with political philosophy, whereas Socrates and Plato were occupied chiefly by questions in ethics. The Pre-Socratics, Francis Bacon, and Alfred North Whitehead, among many others, started from an interest in the physical composition of the natural world. Other philosophical fields include aesthetics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and philosophical anthropology. See also analytic philosophy; Continental philosophy; feminist philosophy; philosophy of science. analytic philosophy Arabic philosophy Islamic philosophy Continental philosophy education philosophy of feminist philosophy history philosophy of Indian philosophy Japanese philosophy Jewish philosophy language philosophy of logic philosophy of mathematics philosophy of mind philosophy of political philosophy process philosophy religion philosophy of science philosophy of
Father of Philosophy Albrecht von Haller, of Berne (1708-1777 )
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a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
The study of seeking knowledge and wisdom in understanding the nature of the universe, man, ethics, art, love, purpose, etc
A rational investigation into the nature of Being
A philosophy is a particular set of ideas that a philosopher has. the philosophies of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
The use of reason and argument in seeking truth and knowledge of reality, especially of the causes and nature of things and of the principles governing existence, the material universe, perception of physical phenomena, and human behaviour (Concise Oxford Dictionary)
Reasoning; argumentation
a particular system of principles for the conduct of life; theory or analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe (including ethics, aesthetics, logic, epistemology, metaphysics)
n   A route of many roads leading from nowhere to nothing
love of wisdom (Plato)
"The objects of philosophy are upon the whole the same as those of religion In both the object is Truth, in that supreme sense in which God and God only is Truth " Logic § 1
The process of systematically reflecting on the world around one in an attempt to build a coherent set of beliefs and values with which to guide one’s actions
A particular philosophical system or theory; the hypothesis by which particular phenomena are explained
The course of sciences read in the schools
any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation; "self-indulgence was his only philosophy"; "my father's philosophy of child-rearing was to let mother do it"
A statement of beliefs
n A route of many roads leading from nowhere to nothing
{i} study of the principles of existence behavior and knowledge, study of the nature of human thought and of the world
Cyberpunk as the Postmodern Text http: //gladstone uoregon edu/~jdl16615/writing/postmod html Modernism/Postmodernism Table http: //nmc loyola edu/intro/postmod/table htm My Philosopy of Life John Ashbery http: //www poets org/poems/Poemprnt cfm?45442B7C000C07070173
intellectual
philosophy of science
The study of the assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including such questions as what distinguishes science from non-science, what are the aims of science, or what is a successful scientific explanation of a phenomenon
philosophy of science
A particular theory within the former
philosophy department
the academic department responsible for teaching philosophy
philosophy of education
Application of philosophical methods to problems and issues in education. Among the topics investigated in the philosophy of education are the nature of learning, especially in children, and the purpose of education, including the question of whether, and if so how, educators should attempt to develop or instill moral virtues and political values. Major figures in the history of the philosophy of education include Plato, Rousseau, and John Dewey
philosophy of history
Branch of philosophy concerned with questions about the meaningfulness of history and the nature of historical explanation. Philosophy of history in the traditional sense is conceived to be a first-order inquiry, its subject matter being the historical process as a whole and its broad aim being to provide an overall elucidation of its course. As a second-order inquiry, philosophy of history focuses on the methods by which practicing historians treat the human past. The former, often referred to as speculative philosophy of history, has had a long and varied career; the latter, known as critical or analytical philosophy of history, rose to prominence only in the 20th century
philosophy of language
Philosophical study of the nature and use of natural languages and the relations between language, language users, and the world. It encompasses the philosophical study of linguistic meaning (see semantics), the philosophical study of language use in communication (see pragmatics), and philosophical reflection on the nature and scientific status of linguistic theories, known as the philosophy of linguistics. Major areas of investigation have included the theory of reference and the theory of truth. It was the dominant field in analytic philosophy for most the 20th century
philosophy of living
outlook on life, manner of viewing and understanding life
philosophy of logic
Philosophical study of the nature and scope of logic. Examples of questions raised in the philosophy of logic are: "In virtue of what features of reality are the laws of logic true?"; "How do we know the truths of logic?"; and "Could the laws of logic ever be falsified by experience?" The subject matter of logic has been variously characterized as the laws of thought, "the rules of right reasoning," "the principles of valid argumentation," "the use of certain words called logical constants," and "truths based solely on the meanings of the terms they contain
philosophy of mathematics
Branch of philosophy concerned with the epistemology and ontology of mathematics. Early in the 20th century, three main schools of thought called logicism, formalism, and intuitionism arose to account for and resolve the crisis in the foundations of mathematics. Logicism argues that all mathematical notions are reducible to laws of pure thought, or logical principles; a variant known as mathematical Platonism holds that mathematical notions are transcendent Ideals, or Forms, independent of human consciousness. Formalism holds that mathematics consists simply of the manipulation of finite configurations of symbols according to prescribed rules; a "game" independent of any physical interpretation of the symbols. Intuitionism is characterized by its rejection of any knowledge-or evidence-transcendent notion of truth. Hence, only objects that can be constructed (see constructivism) in a finite number of steps are admitted, while actual infinities and the law of the excluded middle (see laws of thought) are rejected. These three schools of thought were principally led, respectively, by Bertrand Russell, David Hilbert, and the Dutch mathematician Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881-1966)
philosophy of mind
Branch of philosophy that studies the nature of mind and its various manifestations, including intentionality, sensation and sense perception, feeling and emotion, traits of character and personality, the unconscious, volition, thought, memory, imagination, and belief. It is distinguished from empirical studies of the mind (e.g., psychology, biology, physiology, sociology, and anthropology) by its method, which emphasizes the analysis and clarification of concepts. See also cognitive science
philosophy of religion
Branch of philosophy that studies key metaphysical and epistemological concepts, principles, and problems of religion. Topics considered include the existence and nature of God, the possibility of knowledge of God, human freedom (the free will problem), immortality, and the problems of moral and natural evil and suffering. Natural theology is the attempt to establish knowledge of God without dependence on revelation. Traditional arguments for the existence of God include the ontological argument, the cosmological argument, and the argument from design
philosophy of science
Branch of philosophy that attempts to elucidate the nature of scientific inquiry observational procedures, patterns of argument, methods of representation and calculation, metaphysical presuppositions and evaluate the grounds of their validity from the points of view of epistemology, formal logic, scientific method, and metaphysics. Historically, it has had two main preoccupations, ontological and epistemological. The ontological preoccupations (which frequently overlap with the sciences themselves) ask what kinds of entities can properly figure in scientific theories and what sort of existence such entities possess. Epistemologically, philosophers of science have analyzed and evaluated the concepts and methods employed in studying natural phenomena, both the general concepts and methods common to all scientific inquiries and the specific ones that distinguish special sciences
Doctor of Philosophy
A terminal research degree and one of the highest doctorates awarded by a university
Doctors of Philosophy
plural form of Doctor of Philosophy
analytic philosophy
A style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century
continental philosophy
A collective term for various philosophical traditions strongly influenced by certain 19th and 20th century philosophers from mainland Europe, such as Hegel
moral philosophy
Ethics

The maxims of common life were arranged in some methodical order, and connected together by a few common principles, in the same manner as they had attempted to arrange and connect the phenomena of nature. The science which pretends to investigate and explain those connecting principles, is what is properly called moral philosophy.

natural philosophy
The study of the physical sciences including mathematics
natural philosophy
The mathematical study of astronomy and cosmology
natural philosophy
The objective study of nature in the widest sense, including mathematics and all the sciences
natural philosophy
The study of physics, astronomy and mathematics
natural philosophy
The philosophy of quantum mechanics, relativity and cosmology
speculative philosophy
Philosophy, especially traditional metaphysical philosophy, which makes claims that cannot be verified by everyday experience of the physical world or by a scientific method

Speculative philosophy is the endeavour to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every element of our experience can be interpreted.

speculative philosophy
A particular philosophical school, system, or work representative of this kind of philosophy

In the period before the wars, some of the speculative philosophies, including pragmatism, developed supernaturalist theologies and idealistic metaphysics, while others discarded these traditional views in favor of sweeping Spencerian or Bergsonian theories about nature.

doctor of philosophy
A person holding a doctorate in any faculty except law, medicine, or sometimes theology
political philosophy
(Felsefe) Branch of philosophy that analyzes the state and related concepts such as political obligation, law, social justice, and constitution
Arabic philosophy
or Islamic philosophy Doctrines of the Arabic philosophers of the 9th-12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism in Europe. The Arabic tradition combines Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna, as well as the Spaniard Averroë s, whose interpretations of Aristotle were taken up by both Jewish and Christian thinkers. Muslims, Christians, and Jews participated in the Arabic tradition and separated themselves according to philosophic rather than religious doctrines. When the Arabs dominated Spain, the Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin; this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. In Egypt around the same time, the Arabic tradition was developed by Moses Maimonides and Ibn Khaldun
Doctor of Philosophy
A Doctor of Philosophy is someone who has a PhD. a PhD
Eastern philosophy
{i} philosophies of the East (Japan, China, India, Korea and somewhat Iran)
Indian philosophy
Any of the numerous philosophical systems developed on the Indian subcontinent, including both orthodox (astika) systems, namely, the Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, and Vedanta schools of philosophy, and unorthodox (nastika) systems, such as Buddhism and Jainism. The history of Indian philosophy may be divided into three periods: the prelogical (to the beginning of the Christian era), the logical (1st-11th century), and the ultralogical (11th-18th century). What Dasgupta calls the prelogical stage covers the pre-Mauryan and the Mauryan periods ( 321-185 BC) in Indian history. The logical period begins roughly with the Kusanas (1st-2nd century AD) and was developed most fully in the Gupta era (3rd-5th century) and in the age of imperial Kanauj (7th century). In the 19th century, newly founded universities introduced Indian intellectuals to Western thought, particularly British empiricism and utilitarianism. Indian philosophy in the early 20th century was influenced by German idealism. Later Indian philosophers made significant contributions to analytic philosophy
Japanese philosophy
Conceptual expression of Japanese culture since early 6th century AD. Japanese philosophy is not generally indigenous; Japanese thinkers have always skillfully assimilated alien philosophical categories in developing their own systems. One of the two principal schools of Japanese thought arose from Buddhism and was highly tinged with a religious and often somewhat metaphysical character. The second school arose from Confucianism and was essentially a system of moral philosophy. Since the Meiji Restoration (1868), Western philosophy has been abundantly introduced into Japan. At first British and American philosophies predominated, but in the 20th century the influence of German philosophy became increasingly strong; leading Japanese philosophers were especially influenced by German idealism, phenomenology, and existentialism. To distinguish Western philosophy from Buddhist and Chinese thought, the term tetsugaku ("wise learning") was coined and has come into common use
Jewish philosophy
Any of various kinds of reflective thought engaged in by those identified as being Jews. In the Middle Ages, this meant any methodical and disciplined thought pursued by Jews, whether on specifically Judaic themes or not; in modern times, philosophers who do not discuss Judaism are not ordinarily classified as Jewish philosophers. Philosophy arose in Judaism under Greek influence, though a philosophical approach may be discerned in early Jewish religious works apparently uninfluenced by the Greeks. From the Bible, the books of Job and Ecclesiastes were favourite works of medieval philosophers; the book of Proverbs introduces the concept of Wisdom (Hokhma), which was to have primordial significance for Jewish philosophical thought; and the Wisdom of Solomon had considerable influence on Christian theology. Major figures of Jewish philosophy include Philo Judaeus, Saadia ben Joseph, Moses Maimonides, and Benedict de Spinoza
analytic philosophy
Philosophical tradition that emphasizes the logical analysis of concepts and the study of the language in which they are expressed. It has been the dominant approach in philosophy in the English-speaking world from the early 20th century. With respect to its problems, methods, and style, it is often contrasted with Continental philosophy, though the significance of the opposition has been widely challenged. Analytic philosophers have differed regarding the nature of so-called "ordinary" language and the methodological value of appeals to ordinary usage in the logical analysis of concepts. Those known as formalists hold that, because ordinary language is potentially a source of conceptual confusion, philosophy and science should be conducted in a logically transparent formal language based on modern mathematical, or symbolic, logic. Those known as informalists reject this view, arguing that attempts to "improve" ordinary language in this way inevitably oversimplify or falsify it, thereby creating conceptual confusion of just the sort that the formalists are concerned to avoid. Three figures conventionally recognized as founders of the tradition are Gottlob Frege, G.E. Moore, and Bertrand Russell. Other major figures include Ludwig Wittgenstein, A.J. Ayer, Rudolf Carnap, J.L. Austin, W.V.O. Quine, and David Lewis (1941-2001). See also logical positivism; Vienna Circle
bachelor of philosophy
graduate with a Bachelor's degree in Philosophy
continental philosophy
A cluster of 20th-century European philosophical movements that view themselves as continuing the legacy of Hegel, Husserl, and Heidegger and include phenomenology, existentialism, hermeneutics, structuralism, and deconstructionism, especially as contrasted with analytic philosophy. Collective term for the many distinct philospohical traditions, methods, and styles that predominated on the European continent (particularly in France and Germany) from the time of Immanuel Kant. It is usually understood in contrast with analytic philosophy, also called Anglo-American philosophy. In the 20th century it encompassed schools such as phenomenology, existentialism, structuralism, and deconstruction and thinkers such as Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida. See also structuralism; poststructuralism
critical philosophy
{i} philosophical views of Immanuel Kant (18th century German philosopher)
doctor of philosophy
a doctorate awarded for original contributions to knowledge
feminist philosophy
Loosely related set of approaches in various fields of philosophy that emphasizes the role of gender in the formation of traditional philosophical problems and concepts and the ways in which traditional philosophy reflects and perpetuates bias against women. In social and political philosophy, liberal feminists have advocated making women's political and economic opportunities equal to those of men; socialist or Marxist feminists have argued that women's oppression is inherently economic in character; and radical feminists have criticized liberal political notions such as equality and autonomy as inherently "masculine" (see liberalism). Similar feminist critiques have been made of notions such as rationality and objectivity in epistemology and metaphysics. In ethics, feminists have contrasted the traditional masculine approach based on impersonal and abstract rights and principles with an ethic of "care" based on personal and concrete relationships and responsibilities. In the late 20th century feminists influenced by postmodern philosophy and literary theory pointed out the potential racial, cultural, and class biases of academic feminists attempting to speak for all women and argued that no single description of women's experience or women's oppression can be valid for all (see postmodernism)
moral philosophy
ethics: the philosophical study of moral values and rules
natural philosophy
The study of nature and the physical universe before the advent of modern science.natural philosopher n. science
natural philosophy
study of nature and the physical universe
philosophies
plural of philosophy
political philosophy
Branch of philosophy that analyzes the state and related concepts such as political obligation, law, social justice, and constitution. The first major work of political philosophy in the Western tradition was Plato's Republic. Aristotle's Politics is a detailed empirical study of political institutions. The Roman tradition is best exemplified by Cicero and Polybius. St. Augustine's City of God began the tradition of Christian political thinking, which was developed by Thomas Aquinas. Niccolò Machiavelli studied the nature and limits of political power. Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan (1651) raised the problem of political obligation in its modern form. Hobbes was followed by Benedict de Spinoza, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the exposition of a social-contract theory. This was rejected by David Hume and also by G.W.F. Hegel, whose Philosophy of Right (1821) was fundamental for 19th-century political thought. Hegel's defense of private property stimulated Karl Marx's critique of it. John Stuart Mill developed Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian theory of law and political institutions, so as to reconcile them with individual liberty. In the 20th century John Dewey sought to counteract the dehumanizing aspects of modern capitalist society through a freer form of education. Until the end of the Cold War, the field of political philosophy was characterized by a division between Marxists and more traditional liberal thinkers, as well as by disagreements between left-and right-leaning liberals, such as John Rawls and Robert Nozick (1938-2002), respectively. From the 1970s, feminist political philosophy drew attention to the apparent gendered nature of many concepts and problems in Western political philosophy, especially autonomy, rights, liberty, and the public-private distinction
process philosophy
20th-century school of philosophy that emphasizes the elements of becoming, change, and novelty in experienced reality and opposes the traditional Western philosophical stress on being, permanence, and uniformity. Reality, including both the natural world and the human sphere, is essentially historical in this view, emerging from (and bearing) a past and advancing into a novel future. Hence, it cannot be grasped by old static spatial concepts that ignore the temporal and novel aspects of the universe given in human experience. The foremost contributors to process philosophy have been Henri Bergson and Alfred North Whitehead
shirt-sleeve philosophy
simple philosophy
philosophy
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