AL a state in the southeast of the US, known as the place where the civil rights movement began. State (pop., 2000: 4,447,000), southern central U.S. It is bordered by Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi; the Gulf of Mexico lies to the southwest. Covering 51,718 sq mi (133,950 sq km), its capital is Montgomery. Its original inhabitants included Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek Indians; evidence of their activity can be found near Tuscaloosa. Hernando de Soto traveled there, and the French founded a settlement at Fort Louis in 1702. The Alabama Territory was created in 1817, and statehood was granted in 1819. Alabama seceded from the Union in 1861, becoming part of the Confederacy; it was readmitted in 1868. Efforts during Reconstruction to include blacks in government failed, and Alabama remained segregationist until the 1960s. Dependent on cotton until the early 20th century, the state has since diversified its agricultural production and developed industrially, especially at Birmingham; Mobile has become a major ocean terminal
a river in Alabama formed by the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers near Montgomery; flows southwestward to become a tributary of the Mobile River
a member of the Muskhogean people formerly living in Alabama; a member of the Creek Confederacy
a state in the southeastern United States on the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War
the Muskhogean language of the Alabama people a state in the southeastern United States on the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War a river in Alabama formed by the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers near Montgomery; flows southwestward to become a tributary of the Mobile River a member of the Muskhogean people formerly living in Alabama; a member of the Creek Confederacy
A river formed in central Alabama north of Montgomery by the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers and flowing about 507 km (315 mi) southwest to join the Tombigbee River north of Mobile. River, southern Alabama, U.S. Formed by the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers northeast of Montgomery, it winds westward to Selma and then flows south for a length of 318 mi (512 km). It is joined above Mobile by the Tombigbee to form the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which flow into the Gulf of Mexico. Mobile and Montgomery became major cities largely because they were on this important artery
U.S. maritime grievances against Britain in the American Civil War. Although Britain had declared official neutrality in the war, it allowed the Confederate cruiser Alabama, which later destroyed 68 Union ships, to be constructed in England. U.S. ambassador Charles Francis Adams demanded that the British take responsibility for these damages, and he advocated arbitration to settle the matter. In May 1871 the parties signed the Treaty of Washington, which established certain wartime obligations of neutrals. The tribunal also held Britain liable for losses and awarded the U.S. damages of $15.5 million
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