listen to the pronunciation of dynasty
İngilizce - Türkçe
{i} hanedan

Kubilay Han Yuan Hanedanı'nı 1271 yılında kurmuştur. - Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271.

Safevi hanedanı 1501 yılında İran'ı yeniden birleştirdi. - The Safavid dynasty reunified Iran in 1501.

hükümdar soyu
köklü aile
han soyu
hükümdar sülâlesi
{i} sülale
{s} hanedana ait
Khwarezmian dynasty
(Tarih) Harzemşah Devleti
Khwarezmid dynasty
(Tarih) Harzemşah Devleti
Ottoman dynasty
Osmanlı hükümdarlığı
Samanid dynasty
(Tarih) Samanoğulları Hanedanlığı
aghlabid dynasty
aghlabid hanedanı
flavian dynasty
(Tarih) Flavius Hanedanı
han dynasty
han hanedanı
mughal dynasty
Babür Hanedanı
qing dynasty
hanedanı Qing
seljuq dynasty
Selçuklu hanedanı
{s} hanedan
İngilizce - İngilizce
A series of rulers or dynasts from one family
family of the ruling class In ancient Egyptian times the dynasties were the Pharaoh and his family
{n} sovereignty, government
A succession of kings who were usually related Egyptologists usually divide ancient Egypt's history into 31 dynasties up to the arrival of Alexander the Great The system was initially devised by the priest Manetho in the third century BC
Sovereignty; lordship; dominion
a series of rulers from the same family
A race or succession of kings, of the same line or family; the continued lordship of a race of rulers
One of the most prosperous periods in Chinese history (618 A D -907 A D )
a powerful group or family
A dynasty is a family which has members from two or more generations who are important in a particular field of activity, for example in business or politics
A dynasty often represents a family line of rulers in the usual sense of the word Often, however, it represents a convenient and logical division of the time-span of a region Thus for example, Israel's history is commonly divided into blocks of time corresponding to the most significant social and structural changes recorded in the Bible For example, one can reasonably speak of the patriarchal time (which was based on a family line) but also the Northern Kingdom of Israel (which consisted of several families over its span) The break between dynastic periods can therefore be when one family usurps another, but also when one convenient logical grouping gives way to another
A ruling family who remains in power for generations by choosing successors from among blood relatives Examples include the rulers of both the ancient Chinese and Egyptian civilizations
{i} succession of rulers from the same family, rule of such a family
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Original form means a group of rulers of the same lineage, but in Egypt dynasties mean only historic relations Sometimes rulers of same family are sorted into different dynasties like Huni and Sneferu In the other hand, some kings of different families are in the same dynasty (like in the hyksos era), according to their political, economical and historical role
A succession of rulers from related families Egypt's pharaohs formed 31 dynasties
a series of rulers descending within a family; following the Ptolemaic historian Manetho, ancient Egyptian history is divided into thirty dynasties
A dynasty is a series of rulers of a country who all belong to the same family. The Seljuk dynasty of Syria was founded in 1094
A dynasty is a period of time during which a country is ruled by members of the same family. carvings dating back to the Ming dynasty
family from which a succession of rulers comes; time period during which that family rules
A succession of rulers from the same family or line A family or group that maintains power for several generations: a political dynasty controlling the state
a line of related kings; 31 roughly successive dynasties were defined by the priest-historian Manetho in the third century BC based on earlier Egyptian traditions
Qing Dynasty
the last dynasty of China, lasting from 1644 to 1912
Slave Dynasty
A dynasty in 13th-century India, founded by a Turkish ex-slave
Song Dynasty
A Chinese dynasty that lasted from 960–1279 CE
Tang Dynasty
an imperial dynasty of China (618–907)
In a dynastic (or dynastical) way
{n} a sovereign, governor, ruler, prince
Khwarezmian dynasty
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin
Khwarezmid dynasty
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin
Samanid dynasty
(Tarih) The Samanids (819–999) ( Sāmāniyān) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan, named after its founder Saman Khuda who converted to Sunni Islam despite being from Zoroastrian theocratic nobility. It was among the first native Iranian dynasties in Greater Iran and Central Asia after the Arabs entered the region
Abbasid dynasty
(750-1258) The second of the two great Sunnite dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate. The Abbsids took their name from an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, al-Abbs, whose descendants formed one of several groups agitating for change under the Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyad enforcement of a brand of Arab chauvinism, wherein non-Arab Muslims were relegated to a lower status, led to a revolution in which the Abbsids claimed the Caliphate and enforced a more universal community of believers. This was symbolized by their movement of the caliphal capital from Damascus to Baghdad, an area closer to the geographic centre of the empire and nearer the Persian hinterland. Under their rule, Islamic culture flourished, new heights in philosophy and science were attained, and the period was widely seen as the "golden age" of the Islamic world. During that time, however, the Caliphate's authority slowly began to erode as regional power centres developed throughout the empire. Although central authority was intermittently reasserted by strong-willed caliphs, by the 13th century Abbsid authority was largely spiritual. The last Abbsid caliph was executed by Mongol invaders, but a shadow Caliphate (of dubious authenticity) continued into the early 20th century. See also Ab Muslim
Achaemenian dynasty
(559-330 BC) Early Persian dynasty. It derives its name from Achaemenes, who is thought to have lived in the early 7th century BC. From his son Teispes were descended two lines of kings. The older line included Cyrus I, Cambyses I, Cyrus II (the Great), and Cambyses II; the junior line began with Darius I and ended with the death of Darius III after his defeat by Alexander the Great (330 BC). Its greatest rulers were Cyrus II (r. 559- 529 BC), who actually established the Persian empire and from whose reign it is dated; Darius I, who secured the borders from external threats; and Xerxes I, who completed many of Darius's public works. At its height, the Achaemenian Empire reached from Macedonia to northern India and from the Caucasus Mountains to the Persian Gulf. The ruins of one of its capitals, Persepolis, survive from its golden age
Aghlabid dynasty
(800-909) Arab Muslim dynasty that ruled Ifrqiyyah (Tunisia and eastern Algeria) through a succession of 11 emirs. Nominally subject to the Abbsid dynasty, they in fact were independent. High points of Aghlabid rule included the conquest of Sicily (827-829), the flowering of their capital city, Kairouan (9th century), and naval control of the central Mediterranean Sea. Public works included a system for conserving and distributing water
Alaungpaya dynasty
or Konbaung dynasty (1752-1885) Last ruling dynasty of Myanmar. In the face of the fragmentation of the Toungoo dynasty, Alaungpaya (1714-60), headman in a village near Mandalay, raised an army and subdued the separatist Mon people in southern Myanmar and then conquered the northeastern Shan states. He attacked the Siamese capital of Ayutthaya (now in Thailand) but was forced to retreat. His son Hsinbyushin, the third king of the dynasty (r. 1763-76), sent armies into neighbouring kingdoms and successfully rebuffed four retaliatory Chinese invasions. The sixth king, Bodawpaya (r. 1782-1819), mounted a number of unsuccessful campaigns against the Siamese and moved the capital to Amarapura. He also conquered the kingdom of Arakan. His incursions into Assam aroused the ire of the British, and under Bagyidaw (r. 1819-37) Myanmar (subsequently Burma) was defeated in the first Anglo-Burmese War. From then on the dynasty's hold on Myanmar gradually declined, ending in total annexation by the British in 1885
Almohad dynasty
Arabic al-Muwaidn ("Unitarians") (1130-1269) Berber confederation born out of religious opposition to the Islamic doctrines of the Almoravid dynasty. The Almohad leader Ibn Tmart began his rebellion in the 1120s. Marrakech was captured in 1147 under the leadership of his successor Abd al-Mumin. By the 1170s all of the Maghrib was under unified control for the only time in its history, and the Almohads also controlled Muslim Spain. Their rule was marked by, on the one hand, the cultivation of science and philosophy and, on the other, efforts at religious unification by compelling Jews and Christians to convert or emigrate. They lost control of Spain to the Christians in 1212 and of their North African provinces to the Hafsid dynasty in Tunis (1236) and the Marnids in Marrakech (1269)
Almoravid dynasty
Arabic al-Murbin (1056-1147) Berber confederation that succeeded the Ftimid dynasty in the Maghrib. It flourished in the 11th and early 12th centuries. Its founder, Abd Allh ibn Yasn, was a Muslim scholar of the Mlik school who used religious reform as a means of gaining followers in the mid-11th century. The Almoravids took over Morocco and then the rest of the Maghrib following the decline of the Zrid dynasty. By 1082 they ruled Algiers. By 1110 they also controlled Muslim Spain, but the Christians began to win back territory in 1118. In the 1120s another Berber coalition, the Almohads, started a rebellion, eventually displacing the Almoravids
Almoravide dynasty
{i} Berber Muslim confederation that ruled in Spain and northern Africa (Morocco and Algeria) from 1056 to 1147
Angevin dynasty
Descendants of a 10th-century count of Anjou (the source of the adjective Angevin). The Angevin dynasty overlaps with the house of Plantagenet but is usually said to consist of only the English kings Henry II, Richard I, and John. Henry established the Angevin empire in the 1150s when he took control of Normandy, Anjou, Maine, and, through his marriage to Eleanor, Aquitaine. When he became the king of England in 1154, Henry extended the Angevin holdings from Scotland to the Pyrenees. English claims to French territory led to the Hundred Years' War; by 1558 the English had lost all their former French lands
Antigonid dynasty
(306-168) Ruling house of ancient Macedonia. Antigonus I was proclaimed king in 306 BC after his son Demetrius conquered Cyprus, thus giving his father control of the Aegean, the eastern Mediterranean, and most of the Middle East. Under Demetrius II (r. 239-229 BC), Macedonia was weakened by war with the Greek Achaean and Aetolian leagues. Antigonus III (d. 221) reestablished the Hellenic Alliance, restoring Macedonia to a strong position in Greece. Under Philip V, Macedonia first clashed with Rome, in 215. Philip's defeat upset the old balance of power, and Rome became the decisive force in the eastern Mediterranean. The defeat of his successor, Perseus, at Pydna in 168 BC marked the end of the dynasty
Arsacid dynasty
(247 BC-AD 224) Persian dynasty. It was founded by Arsaces (r. 250-211? BC) of the Parni tribe, which originally dwelt east of the Caspian Sea and entered Parthia after the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC), gradually extending control southward. Arsacid power reached its peak under Mithradates I (r. 171-138 BC). The government was influenced by that of the Seleucid dynasty and tolerated the formation of vassal kingdoms. The dynasty legitimized its rule over former Achaemenian territories by claiming descent from the Achaemenian king Artaxerxes II. It controlled trade routes between Asia and the Greco-Roman world and used its resultant wealth to erect many buildings. The dynasty was overthrown in 224 by the Ssnian dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(1173-1250) Kurdish dynasty founded by Saladin that ruled over Egypt, most of Syria, upper Iraq, and Yemen. After overthrowing the Ftimid dynasty, Saladin defended Palestine during the Crusades and made Egypt the most powerful Muslim state in the world. After Saladin's death the Ayybid regime became decentralized. In 1250 a group of mamlks (military slaves) exploited a lapse in Ayybid succession to take over the government in Egypt and to found the Mamlk dynasty. Minor Ayybid princes continued to rule in parts of the Syria for some years afterward
Buyid dynasty
or Buwayhid dynasty (945-1055) Muslim Shite dynasty founded by three sons of Byeh, a Daylamite (north Persian) fisherman. They captured Baghdad in 945, and each brother took a portion of territory. After they died, one Byid leader, Ad al-Dawlah, consolidated control (977) and enlarged the Byid domain. From 983 the territories were split among family members. The dynasty ended when the Turkic Seljq dynasty took Baghdad in 1055. Byid art maintained its influence throughout the Seljq reign; Byid silverwork is notable
Calukya dynasty
or Chalukya dynasty Either of two ancient Indian dynasties. The Western Calukyas ruled as emperors in the Deccan (peninsular India) from AD 543 to 757 and again from 975 to 1189. The Eastern Calukyas ruled in Vengi (present-day eastern Andhra Pradesh) from 624 to 1070. The most significant ruling family of the Deccan in the 5th and 6th centuries, they controlled both coasts and the major river valleys
Capetian dynasty
{i} Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet
Carolingian dynasty
Family of Frankish aristocrats that ruled nearly all or part of western Europe in 751-987. Pippin I (d. 640), the dynasty's founder, came to power in the office of mayor of the palace under the Merovingian king Chlotar II, with authority over Austrasia. From this post, his descendants, including Charles Martel, continued to usurp authority from the Merovingians, who remained on the throne as figureheads until 751, when Charles's son Pippin III, with papal support, deposed Childeric III and formally took the title of King of the Franks. Under Pippin's son Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus the source of the dynasty's name), the Carolingian realm was extended into Germany and Italy, where he conquered the Lombards and continued the alliance with Rome. Charlemagne also promoted religious reform and cultural growth and was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III on Dec. 25, 800. On his death, Charlemagne was succeeded by his son Louis the Pious, whose three sons divided the realm in 843. Despite internal strife and foreign invasion, the dynasty survived until 911 in the eastern part of the realm, where German rulers would revive Carolingian political ideals later in the century, and in the western realm until 987
Chakri dynasty
Thailand's ruling family. Phraphutthayotfa Chulalok (1737-1809) founded the dynasty and ruled as Rama I (r. 1782-1809). He reorganized Siam's defenses to successfully repel numerous Burmese attacks. His descendants have reigned in an unbroken line ever since. Rama III (r.1824-51) increased trade with Europe and negotiated a treaty with the British East India Co.; King Mongkut (Rama IV; r.1851-68) and King Chulalongkorn (Rama V; r.1868-1910) helped modernize the government along Western lines and thereby avoided colonial rule. King Vajiravudh (Rama VI; r.1910-25) instituted social reforms and restored the nation's fiscal autonomy (lost to the West under Rama IV). Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) has reigned since 1946 as Thailand's ceremonial head of state
Choson dynasty
or Yi dynasty (1392-1910) Last and longest-lived of Korea's dynasties. Chinese cultural influences were intense in this period, when Neo-Confucianism was adopted as the ideology of the state and society. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Korea suffered invasions at the hands of the Japanese and Manchus. Many cultural assets were lost, and it took the country nearly a century to recover. At the end of the 19th century, foreign powers once again threatened Korea; it was annexed by Japan in 1910. During the Chos n dynasty the Korean alphabetic script Hangul (see Korean language) was created, and the yangban, a new aristocracy, was established. See also Yi Song-gye
Cola dynasty
or Chola dynasty South Indian Tamil rulers of unknown antiquity (before AD 200). The dynasty originated in the rich Cauvery (Kaveri) River valley, and Uraiyur (Tiruchchirappalli) was its oldest capital. The Cola country stretched from the Vaigai River in the south to Tondaimandalam in the north. Under Rajendracola Deva I (r. 1014-44), the conquest of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) was completed, the Deccan was conquered ( 1021), and an expedition was sent as far north as the Ganges (Ganga) River (1023). His successor battled the Calukya dynasty in the Deccan. The Pandyas conquered the Cola country in 1257, and the dynasty ended in 1279. Revenue administration, village self-government, and irrigation were highly organized under the Colas
FaTimid dynasty
(909-1171) Ismli Shite dynasty of North Africa and the Middle East. Its members traced their descent from Ftimah, a daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. As Shite Muslims, they opposed the Sunnite caliphate of the Abbsid dynasty, which they were determined to supplant. From Yemen they expanded into North Africa and Sicily, and in 909 their imam emerged to proclaim the new dynasty. The first four Fimid caliphs ruled from Tunisia, but the conquest of Egypt in 969 occasioned the building of a new capital, Cairo. At its height, the dynasty controlled Mecca and Medina, Syria, Palestine, and Africa's Red Sea coast. Seeking to overthrow the Abbsids, the Fimids maintained a network of missionaries and agents in Abbsid territories (see Assassin). In 1057-59 the Fimid caliph was briefly proclaimed in Baghdad, the Abbsid capital, but Fimid fortunes declined thereafter. Attacks by Crusaders, Turks, and Byzantines and factionalism in the armed forces weakened the caliphate; disputes over succession to the title of caliph led to the dynasty's final end, however, as many of the Asian missionaries broke away, and the central government came to rely on non-Isml troops. The last caliph died in 1171, and the dynasty was succeeded by the Sunnite Ayybid dynasty
Flavian dynasty
(AD 69-96) Ancient Roman imperial dynasty of Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, members of the Flavia gens, or clan. Vespasian sought to give the office of emperor permanent form, by means of a formal system of titles to replace personal names, an insistence on the rights of office, and a move to make Caesarism (dictatorship) hereditary by natural descent or adoption. Worship of the deified caesars (subemperors) became the symbol of imperial continuity and legitimacy
Gahadavala dynasty
( 1050- 1250) One of the many ruling families of North India on the eve of the 12th-13th century Muslim conquests. Its history illustrates all the features of the early medieval North Indian polity dynastic hostilities and alliances, feudal-state structure, absolute dependence on Brahmanical social ideology, and vulnerability in the face of external aggression. Muslim expansion eclipsed the Gahadavala dynasty in the early 13th century
Ganga dynasty
Either of two distinct but remotely related Indian dynasties. The Western Gangas ruled in Mysore state from AD 250 to 1004. They encouraged scholarly work, built some remarkable temples, and encouraged cross-peninsular trade. The Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga from 1028 to 1434-35. They were great patrons of religion and the arts; the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture. Both dynasties interacted with the Calukya and Cola dynasties
Ghaznavid dynasty
(977-1186) Turkish dynasty that ruled in Khorsn (northeastern Iran), Afghanistan, and northern India. It was founded by Sebüktigin (r. 977-997), a former slave. His son Mahmd (998-1030) enlarged the empire to its greatest extent; during his reign, Ferdows wrote the epic Shh-nmeh ("Book of Kings"). Mamd's grandson Masd I (1031-41) lost the western half of the empire to the Seljq dynasty. The Ghaznavids continued to rule their eastern provinces until they were defeated by the Ghrid dynasty in 1186. They are noted for their architecture and for their patronage of the arts and sciences. See also al-Brn
Gonzaga dynasty
Italian dynasty that ruled Mantua 1328-1707 and Montferrat and Casale 1536-1707. Its history began with Luigi I (or Lodovico; 1267-1360), who gained control of Mantua in 1328. Its rulers, many noted as military and political leaders and patrons of the arts, included Giovan Francesco II died 1444 , a general and founder of the first school based on humanistic principles (1423); and Federigo II died 1540 , captain general of the papal forces who was made duke of Mantua in 1530. Mantua was annexed by Austria in 1708
Gtsang dynasty
(1565?-1642) Last secular native ruling house in Tibet. The Gtsang kings allied themselves with the Karma-pa order of Buddhists against the new reformed Dge-lugs-pa order. The Dge-lugs-pa gained the support of the Mongol Altan Khan, and although the Gtsang attacked their headquarters in Lhasa, the dynasty was finally dethroned in 1642, when temporal authority was given to the Mongol-backed Dalai Lama
Gupta dynasty
(4th-6th centuries) Rulers of an empire in northern and parts of central and western India. The dynasty was founded by Chandra (Candra) Gupta I (r. 320- 330). The Gupta era was once regarded as India's Classical period, but new archaeological evidence has given the Mauryan empire that designation. Nevertheless, the Gupta period is noted for the flourishing of Sanskrit literature (see Kalidasa), its sophisticated metal coins, its advanced mathematics (which made use of decimal notation and the numeral zero and at that time was more advanced than anywhere else), and its astronomical advances
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty
Either of two dynasties of Hindu India. The Pratiharas were the most important dynasty of 9th-century northern India. The line of Haricandra ruled in Mandor, Marwar (present-day Jodhpur, Rajasthan state), in the 6th-9th centuries, generally with feudatory status. The line of Nagabhata ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj in the 8th-11th centuries. This line is generally considered the more important one; at its peak of prosperity and power ( 836-910), it rivaled the Gupta dynasty in the extent of its territory. The last important Pratihara king was driven from Kannauj by Mahmd of Ghazna (1018). Other Gurjara lines existed, but they did not take the surname Pratihara
Habsburg dynasty
or Hapsburg dynasty Royal German family, one of the chief dynasties of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century. As dukes, archdukes, and emperors, the Habsburgs ruled Austria from 1282 until 1918. They also controlled Hungary and Bohemia (1526-1918) and ruled Spain and the Spanish empire for almost two centuries (1504-06, 1516-1700). One of the earliest Habsburgs to rise to great power was Rudolf I, who became German king in 1273. Frederick IV, the Habsburg king of Germany, was crowned Holy Roman emperor as Frederick III in 1452, and Habsburgs continued to hold that title until 1806. Frederick's son Maximilian I acquired the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy through marriage. The zenith of Habsburg power came in the 16th century under the emperor Charles V. See also Holy Roman Empire
Hafsid dynasty
( 13th-16th century) Berber dynasty. It was founded by a governor of the Almohad dynasty, Ab Zakariyy Yay, in north-central Africa 1229. His son Mustanir (r. 1249-77) enlarged the empire to its peak of power and prestige. It had trade relations with Italian, Spanish, and Provençal communities despite the fact that it also ran pirate operations in the Mediterranean Sea. It resisted periodic invasions by the Marnid dynasty. Dynastic struggles after 1452 weakened the afids. Spanish and Turkish forces later competed for the afid territory, and the Ottoman Empire incorporated its land into a province in 1574
Han dynasty
(206 BC-AD 220) Second great Chinese imperial dynasty. In contrast to the preceding Qin dynasty, the Han was a period of cultural flowering. One of the greatest of the early histories, the Shiji by Sima Qian, was composed, and the fu, a poetic form that became the norm for creative writing, began to flourish. The Yuefu, or Music Bureau, collected and recorded not only ceremonial chants but also the songs and ballads of ordinary people. Lacquerware, first developed during the Shang dynasty, reached a level of great mastery, and silk was woven for export trade, which reached as far as Europe. Buddhism entered China during the Han. Paper was invented, time was measured with water clocks and sundials, and calendars were published frequently. So thoroughly did the Han dynasty establish what was thereafter considered Chinese culture that the Mandarin Chinese word for Chinese people is Han
Hasmonean dynasty
Dynasty of ancient Judaea, descendants of the Maccabee family. The name derives from their ancestor Hasmoneus, but the first of the ruling dynasty was Simon Maccabeus, who became leader of the Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid king 143 BC and, in victory, was made high priest, ruler, and ethnarch of Judaea. The last Hasmonean was deposed and executed in 37 BC by the Romans under Mark Antony
Hohenstaufen dynasty
German dynasty that ruled the Holy Roman Empire (1138-1208, 1212-54). It was founded by Count Frederick died 1105 , who built Staufen Castle and was appointed duke of Swabia as Frederick I (1079). Hohenstaufen emperors included Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1155-90), Henry VI (r.1191-97), and Frederick II (r.1220-50). The dynasty continued the struggle with the papacy begun under their predecessors. See also Guelphs and Ghibellines
Hohenzollern dynasty
Dynasty prominent in European history, chiefly as the ruling house of Brandenburg-Prussia (1415-1918) and of imperial Germany (1871-1918). The first recorded ancestor, Burchard I, was count of Zollern in the 11th century. Two main branches were formed: the Franconian line (including burgraves of Nürnberg, electors of Brandenburg, kings of Prussia, and German emperors) and the Swabian line (including counts of Zollern, princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, and princes and then kings of Romania). The Franconian branch became Lutheran at the Reformation but turned to Calvinism in 1613 and acquired considerable territory in the 15th-17th centuries. Both Prussian and German sovereignties were lost at the end of World War I (1914-18). The Swabian line remained Catholic at the Reformation and ruled in Romania until 1947. The Hohenzollern monarchs included Frederick William I, Frederick II (the Great), Frederick William II, and Frederick William III of Prussia; William I and William II of Germany; and Carol I and Carol II of Romania
Husaynid dynasty
Ruling dynasty of Tunisia (1705-1957). The dynasty was founded by an officer of the Ottoman Empire, al-usayn ibn Al. He was allowed to rule autonomously and made treaties with European powers. European pressure led later usaynid rulers to suppress piracy (1819), abolish slavery, and ease restrictions on Jews (1837-55). When Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1883, usaynid rulers became mere figureheads. The monarchy was abolished when Tunisia gained its independence in 1957
Idrisid dynasty
Arab Muslim dynasty that ruled Berber areas of Morocco (789-921). The founder, Idrs I (r. 789-791), established the sharifian tradition in Morocco, by which the claim to descent from Muhammad was established as the principle for monarchic rule. His son Idrs II (r. 803-828) founded Fez (modern Fès) in 808. The dynasty was the first to incorporate both Berbers and Arabs. It broke up into rival principalities, paving the way for another Berber group, the Almoravid dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
Family of monarchs of Poland-Lithuania, Bohemia, and Hungary that became one of the most powerful in east-central Europe in the 15th-16th centuries. It was founded by Jogaila, grand duke of Lithuania, who became Wadysaw II Jagieo of Poland after marriage to Queen Jadwiga (1373?-99) in 1386. Wadysaw III Warneczyk (1424-44) extended the dynasty by also assuming the throne of Hungary (1440). He was succeeded by Casimir IV, who placed his son on the thrones of Bohemia (1471) and Hungary. During the reigns of Casimir's sons John Albert (1459-1501) and Alexander (1461-1506), the Jagiellon rulers lost much of their power in Poland to the nobility. When Sigismund I succeeded Alexander in 1506, he strengthened the government and saw the Teutonic Order convert its lands into the secular duchy of Prussia (1525), a Polish fief. In 1526 the death of Louis II ended Jagiellon rule in Bohemia and Hungary. In 1561 Sigismund II Augustus incorporated Livonia into Poland, but when he died, leaving no heirs, the Jagiellon dynasty ended (1572)
Jin dynasty
or Chin dynasty First of two major Chinese dynasties to bear the name Jin. The dynasty had two distinct phases: the Western Jin (AD 265-317) and the Eastern Jin (AD 317-420). The latter is considered one of the Six Dynasties that ruled China between the fall of the Han (AD 220) and the establishment of the Sui (581). China was reunited under Sima Yan (Ssu-ma Yen), first of the Jin emperors, but after his death the empire rapidly crumbled. The Xiongnu nomads of the north overran the Jin capital of Luoyang and later defeated the Jin again at Chang'an. For the next two centuries China was divided into two societies, northern (plagued by barbarian invasions) and southern. The Eastern Jin, founded by another Sima prince at Nanjing, suffered revolts, court intrigues, and frontier wars, but also saw the flourishing of Buddhism in China and the birth of China's first great painter, Gu Kaizhi (344-406?). See also Juchen dynasty
Juchen dynasty
or Jin dynasty (1115-1234) Dynasty that ruled an empire formed by the Tungus Juchen tribes of Manchuria. It covered much of Inner Asia and all of northern China. Like the Liao, an earlier Inner Asian dynasty, the Juchen maintained a Chinese-style bureaucracy to rule over the southern part of their conquests and a tribal state to rule in Inner Asia. Very conscious of preserving their ethnic identity, they maintained their language, developed their own script, and banned Chinese clothes and customs from their army
Julio-Claudian dynasty
(AD 14-68) Successors of Augustus, the first Roman emperor: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. It was a loosely defined set of kin relations rather than a direct bloodline. Tiberius's rule was competent, with notable accomplishments, but it ended in cruel tyranny. The insane Caligula was wild and capricious. Under Claudius, Rome experienced marked development. Under Nero the empire prospered, but he was given to excesses, and his reign ended amid rebellion and civil war
Kalacuri dynasty
or Kalachuri dynasty Any of several dynasties in Indian history. Apart from the dynastic name and perhaps a belief in common ancestry, there is little in known sources to connect them. The earliest known Kalacuri family ruled 550-620 in central and western India; its power ended with the rise of one branch of the Calukyas. The rise of another Kalacuri dynasty (1156-81), centred in Karnataka, coincided with the rise of the Lingayat, or Virashaiva, Hindu sect. The best-known Kalacuri family ruled in central India with its base at the ancient city of Tripuri (modern Tewar); it originated in the 8th century, expanded significantly in the 11th century, and declined in the 12th-13th centuries
Karadjordjevic dynasty
Rulers descended from the Serbian rebel leader Karadjordje (1762-1817). It rivaled the Obrenovi dynasty for control of Serbia during the 19th century and ruled that country and its successor state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), in 1842-58 and 1903-45. See also Alexander I; Peter I; Peter II
Khwarezm-Shah dynasty
( 1077-1231) Dynasty that ruled Central Asia and Iran, first as vassals of the Seljq dynasty and then independently. It was founded by a slave, An tegin Gharacha, who was appointed governor of Khwrezm. At its peak under Al al-Dn Muammad (r. 1200-20) and his son Jall al-Dn Mingburnu (1220-31), the dynasty's territory extended from India to Anatolia. It fell to Genghis Khan in 1231
Later Le dynasty
(1428-1788) Greatest and longest-lasting dynasty of traditional Vietnam. Its founder, Le Loi, drove the Chinese out of Vietnam and began the process of recovering the southern portion of the region from the kingdom of Champa. In 1471 the dynasty's greatest ruler, Le Thanh Tong (d. 1497), completed that work. He divided the country into provinces patterned on the Chinese model and established a triennial Confucian civil-service examination. After 1533 the Le rulers were only theoretically supreme, real power being held by the Trinh and Nguyen families. In 1771 a peasant uprising toppled the dynasty
Liao dynasty
(907-1125) Dynasty formed by the nomadic Khitan tribes in much of present-day Manchuria, Mongolia, and the northeastern corner of China proper. The Chinese portion of the empire was governed on the Tang pattern, while the northern part was set up on a tribal basis. After the establishment of the Song dynasty (960-1279), the Liao carried out a border war for control of northern China. Eventually the Song agreed to pay the Liao an annual tribute. The Juchen, former subjects of the Liao, destroyed the dynasty in 1125 but adopted most of its governmental system. The name "Cathay" for China derives from Khitay, another name for the Khitan
Maktum dynasty
or l Maktm ("Maktm family") Ruling family of the emirate of Dubayy (Dubai) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). One of the two members of the l B Falsh family to emigrate from Abu Dhabi to Dubayy in 1833 was Ba ibn Suhayl, father of Maktm ibn Ba, the first ruler of Dubayy (r. 1833-52). The current ruler, Maktm ibn Rshid, who is also vice president of the UAE, is the ninth of the dynasty. The Maktm are a branch of the same Ban Ys confederation that includes the Nahyn, rulers of Abu Dhabi
Mamluk dynasty
or Mamluke dynasty (1250-1517) Rulers of Syria and Egypt. The term mamlk is an Arabic word for slave. Slave soldiers had been used in the Islamic world since the 9th century, and they often exploited the military power vested in them to seize control from the legitimate political authorities. In 1250 a group of mamlk generals seized the throne of the Ayybid dynasty on the death of the sultan Al-Malik al-li Ayyb (r. 1240-49). The resulting dynasty legitimized its rule by reconstituting the caliphate of the Abbsid dynasty (destroyed by the Mongols in 1258) and by acting as patrons to the rulers of Mecca and Medina. Under Mamlk rule the remaining crusaders were expelled from the eastern Mediterranean coast, and the Mongols were driven back from Palestine and Syria. Culturally, historical writing and architecture flourished during their rule. A shift in their ethnic makeup from Turkish to Circassian corresponded with their slow decline; their failure to adopt field artillery as weapons (except in siege warfare) contributed to their defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. They afterward remained intact as a social class, however, and continued to exercise a high degree of political autonomy, though they were only one of several forces influencing Egyptian political life. Their power was finally broken by the Albanian-Egyptian officer Muhammad Al in a massacre in 1811. See also Baybars I
Marinid dynasty
Berber dynasty that followed the Almohad dynasty in North Africa in the 13th-15th centuries. The Marnids were a tribe of the Zantah group, which was allied to the Umayyads in Córdoba. In 1248 a Marnid leader, Ab Yay, captured Fès and made it the Marnid capital. The capture of Marrakech (1269) made the Marnids the masters of Morocco. They waged inconclusive war in Spain and Africa that gradually depleted their resources, reducing the realm to anarchy in the 15th century. Sad sharifs captured Fès in 1554
Merovingian dynasty
(476-750) Frankish dynasty considered the first French royal house. It was named for Merovech (fl. 450), whose son Childeric I (d. 482?) ruled a tribe of Salian Franks from his capital at Tournai. His son, Clovis I, united nearly all of Gaul in the late 5th century except Burgundy and present-day Provence. On his death the realm was divided among his sons, but by 558 it was united under his last surviving son, Chlotar I. The pattern of dividing and then reuniting the realm continued for generations. After the reign of Dagobert I (623-639), the authority of the Merovingian kings declined, and real power gradually came to rest in the hands of the mayors of the palace. In 751 the last Merovingian king, Childeric III, was deposed by Pippin III, the first of the Carolingian dynasty. See also Brunhild; Childebert II; Chilperic I; Fredegund; Sigebert I
Ming Dynasty
the dynasty (=family of rulers) which ruled China from 1368 to 1644. During this period there were many important developments in Chinese art, politics, and trade. Ming vases (=decorated containers) are famous for being very beautiful and very valuable. (1368-1644) Chinese dynasty that provided an interval of native rule between eras of Mongol and Manchu dominance. The Ming, one of the most stable but autocratic of dynasties, extended Chinese influence farther than did any other native rulers of China. Under the Ming, the capital of China was moved from Nanjing to Beijing, and the Forbidden City was constructed. Naval expeditions led by Zheng He paved the way for trade with Southeast Asia, India, and eastern Africa. During the Ming dynasty, novels were written in the vernacular, while philosophy benefited from the work of Wang Yangming in Neo-Confucianism. Ming monochrome porcelain became famous throughout the world, with imitations created in Vietnam, Japan, and Europe
Mughal dynasty
or Mogul dynasty Muslim dynasty that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. The dynasty's rulers, descended from Timur and Genghis Khan, included unusually talented rulers over the course of seven generations, and the dynasty was further distinguished by its emperors' efforts to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state. Prominent among the Mughal rulers were the founder, Bbur (r. 1526-30); his grandson Akbar (r. 1556-1605); and Shah Jahn. Under Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) the empire reached its greatest extent, but his intolerance sowed the seeds for its decline. It broke up under pressure from factional rivalries, dynastic warfare, and the invasion of northern India in 1739 by Ndir Shah
Nahyan dynasty
or l Nahyn ("Nahyn family") Ruling family of the emirate of Abu Dhabi, a constituent part of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The family were originally Bedouin of the Ban Ys confederation of Arabia from around the oases of Liw. The first emir arrived in the late 1770s and established a commercial port on the island. The current emir, Sheikh Zyid ibn Sulan l Nahyn, is also president of the UAE
Nanda dynasty
Family that ruled Magadha, in northern India ( 343- 321 BC). Legends regarding the low-class origins and ruthless conquests of its founder, Mahapadma, are supported by classical scholarship. The brief period of Nanda rule, along with the succeeding and more lengthy tenure of the Mauryan empire, represent the political aspect of a great transitional epoch in which settled agriculture and the growing use of iron resulted in production surpluses and the growth of cities. There are references to the wealth of the Nandas, their sizable military, and administrative initiatives such as irrigation projects
Nguyen dynasty
(1802-1945) Last Vietnamese dynasty. During the 16th century, while the emperors of the Later Le dynasty were nominally in control, the Nguyen family came to rule southern Vietnam in an essentially independent fashion. Emperor Gia Long (1762-1820), founder of the dynasty, conquered all of Vietnam in 1802; his successors modeled their administration on the Chinese Qing dynasty (1644-1911/12). The French invaded in 1858 and eventually took control of the entire country. They retained the Nguyen emperors as rulers of Annam (central Vietnam) and Tonkin (northern Vietnam) but not of southern Vietnam (Cochinchina). Bao Dai, the last emperor, abdicated following the Vietnamese nationalists' proclamation of independence in 1945
Northern Wei dynasty
or Toba dynasty (AD 386-534/35) Longest-lived and most powerful of the northern Chinese dynasties that ruled after the Han dynasty fell and before the Sui and Tang dynasties reunified China. Founded by Toba tribesmen, the Northern Wei defended its territory against other northern nomads and by 439 had unified all of northern China. The Wei lifestyle became more sedentary, and the Toba people, impressed by Chinese culture, began to emulate the Chinese. To bring into cultivation land abandoned during war, hundreds of thousands of peasants were relocated and allocated land under the equal-field system of land distribution. The rulers of the Northern Wei were great patrons of Buddhism, and the period is noted for its Buddhist art, particularly at the caves of Yungang. The one exception, the emperor Taiwu, persecuted Buddhists and supported Daoism
Obrenovic dynasty
Family that provided Serbia with five rulers between 1815 and 1903. Its founding member, Milo (1780-1860), was prince of Serbia (1815-39, 1858-60). His elder son, Milan III, reigned only 26 days before dying in 1839. Milo's second son, Michael III, was prince on two occasions (1839-42, 1860-68). A cousin, Milan IV (1854-1901), became prince in 1868 and then king of Serbia (1882-89). His son Alexander (1876-1903) succeeded him as king in 1889, but he was assassinated in 1903
Qajar dynasty
(1794-1925) Ruling dynasty of Iran. It was founded by gh Muammad Khan, who brutally reunified Iran and reasserted Iranian rule over territories in Georgia and the Caucasus by defeating his rivals, including the last ruler of the Zand dynasty. His successor, Fat Al Shah (r. 1797-1834), lost land to Russia and increased contacts with the West. Nsir al-Dn Shah's (r. 1848-96) successful manipulation of Russia and Britain preserved Persia's independence, but his successors could not cope with subsequent European meddling, and the dynasty was overthrown by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925
Qin dynasty
or Ch'in dynasty (221-207 BC) Dynasty that established the first great Chinese empire. The Qin (from which the name China is derived) established the approximate boundaries and basic administrative system that all subsequent dynasties were to follow. Qin accomplishments include standardizing the Chinese writing system and building the Great Wall; the dynasty is also notorious for the "Qin bibliocaust," in which all nonutilitarian books were ordered burned. Due to its harshness, the dynasty outlasted its first emperor, Shihuangdi, by only three years; it was beset by rebellion and succeeded by the Han dynasty
Qing dynasty
or Ch'ing dynasty or Manchu dynasty (1644-1911/12) Last of the imperial dynasties in China. The name Qing was first applied to the dynasty established by the Manchu in 1636 in Manchuria and then applied by extension to their rule in China. During the Qing dynasty, China's territory and population expanded tremendously. Cultural attitudes were strongly conservative and Neo-Confucianism was the dominant philosophy. The arts flourished: literati painting was popular, novels in the vernacular developed substantially, and jingxi (Peking opera) developed. Qing porcelain, textiles, tea, paper, sugar, and steel were exported to all parts of the world. Military campaigns in the latter part of the 18th century depleted government finances, and corruption grew. These conditions, combined with population pressures and natural disasters, led to the Opium Wars and the Taiping and Nian rebellions, which in turn so weakened the dynasty that it was unable to rebuff the demands of foreign powers. The dynasty ended with the republican revolution of 1911 and the abdication of the last emperor in 1912
Romanov dynasty
Rulers of Russia from 1613 to 1917. The name derived from Roman Yurev (d. 1543), whose daughter Anastasiya Romanovna was the first wife of Ivan IV the Terrible. Her nephews assumed the surname Romanov, and the dynasty began with the election of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613. He was succeeded by his son Alexis (r. 1645-76), followed by Alexis's sons Fyodor III and joint rulers Ivan V and Peter I. When Peter was sole ruler, he decreed in 1722 that the monarch could choose his successor, but he was unable to effect the law, so the crown passed to his wife Catherine I, his grandson Peter II, and Ivan V's daughter Anna. The line of descent returned to Peter's daughter Elizabeth (r. 1741-62), her nephew Peter III and his wife Catherine II the Great, and their son Paul I. Paul established a definite order of succession and was followed by his sons Alexander I (r. 1801-25) and Nicholas I (r. 1825-55). Nicholas was succeeded by his son Alexander II, grandson Alexander III, and great-grandson Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917), the last ruler of the Russian monarchy
Sabah dynasty
or l ab ("ab family") Ruling family of Kuwait since 1756. In that year the Ban Utb, a group of families of the Anizah tribe living in what is now Kuwait, appointed a member of the ab family, ab ibn Jbir (r. 1752-64), to be their ruler. The dynasty frequently depended politically or militarily on outsiders but maintained its autonomy. Its dependence on the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century was subsequently a cause for Iraq to claim hegemony over Kuwait. It later enjoyed the patronage of the United Kingdom and, more recently, the support of the U.S. Despite the existence of deliberative institutions in modern Kuwait, the dynasty retains absolute power
Safavid dynasty
{i} Persian dynasty which was at first part of a Turkic nomadic group that ruled from 1500 to 1722 and set up the Shiite sect of Islam as the state religion
Safavid dynasty
(1502-1736) Persian dynasty. It was founded by Isml I, who, by converting his people from Sunnite to Shite Islam and adopting the trappings of Persian monarchy, planted the seeds of a unique national and religious identity. He captured Tabrz from the Ak Koyunlu and became shah of Azerbaijan (1501) and Persia (1502). Abbs I (r. 1588-1629) brought the dynasty to its peak; his capital, Esfahn, was the centre of afavid architectural achievement. The dynasty declined in the century following his reign, pressed by the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal dynasty, and fell when a weak shah, ahmsp II, was deposed by his general, Ndir Shah
Sasanian dynasty
or Sssnian dynasty Persian dynasty (AD 224-651). Founded by Ardashr I (r. AD 224-241) and named for his ancestor Ssn ( 1st century AD), it replaced the Parthian empire (see Parthia). Its capital was Ctesiphon. The dynasty battled the Roman Republic and Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire in the west and the Kushns and Hephthalites in the east throughout much of its existence. In the 3rd century its empire stretched from Sogdiana and Georgia to northern Arabia, and from the Indus River to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Traditions of the Achaemenian dynasty were revived, Zoroastrianism was reestablished as the state religion, and art and architecture experienced a renaissance. Its important rulers included Shpr I (d. 272), Shpr II (309-379), Khosrow I, and Khosrow II. The Ssnids were the last native Persian dynasty before the Arab conquest of the region in the late 7th century
Saud dynasty
or l Sad ("Sad family") Rulers of present-day Saudi Arabia. In the 18th century Muammad ibn Sad (d. 1765), chief of an Arabian village that had never fallen under control of the Ottoman Empire, rose to power together with the Wahhb religious movement. He and his son Abd al-Azz I (r. 1764-1803) conquered much of Arabia; Sad I (r. 1803-14) conquered Medina in 1804 and Mecca in 1806. The Ottoman sultan induced the viceroy of Egypt to crush the Sads and Wahhbs, which was accomplished by 1818. A second Sad state was formed in 1824 by Muammad ibn Sad's grandson Turk (r. 1823-34), who made Riyadh his capital. When Turk's son Fayal (r. 1843-65) died, succession disputes led to civil war. Power did not return to Sad hands until 1902, when Ibn Sad recaptured Riyadh. He established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia by royal decree in 1932. One of his sons, Fahd (b. 1923), became the country's ruler in 1982
Seleucid dynasty
Macedonian Greek dynasty (312-64 BC) founded by Seleucus I Nicator. Carved from the empire of Alexander the Great, the Seleucid domain stretched from Thrace to the border of India and included Babylonia, Syria, and Anatolia. Seleucus was succeeded in 281 by Antiochus I Soter, who reigned until 261. He was followed by Antiochus II (r. 261-246), Seleucus II Callinicus (r. 246-225), Seleucus III (r. 225-223), and Antiochus III (the Great; r. 223-187). Under the last, the empire was at its height. Resistance to the power and spread of Hellenistic culture soon began to manifest itself in the Asian lands. Antiochus III's encounter with the Romans signaled decline, especially after the defeat of 190. The decline accelerated after the death of Antiochus IV (r. 175-164), who lost Judaea to the Maccabees. The efforts of Demetrius I and Antiochus VII could not forestall the dynasty's inevitable end at the hands of the Roman Pompey the Great in 64 BC
Seljuq dynasty
or Saljq dynasty ( 11th-13th centuries) Muslim Turkmen dynasty that ruled Persia, Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia. Seljq was the chief of a nomadic Turkish tribe. His grandsons Chaghri Beg and Toghrïl Beg conquered realms in Iran. Under Alp-Arslan and Malik-Shah, the empire came to include all of Iran, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine; Alp-Arslan's victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert led to several Crusades. Adherents of Sunnite Islam, the Seljqs adopted Persian culture, and under them the Persian language partly displaced Arabic as a literary language in Iran. By 1200 Seljq power remained only in their sultanate of Rm in Anatolia, which collapsed in a war against the Khwrezm-Shah dynasty in 1230 and was overrun by Mongols in 1243. See also Nizm al-Mulk
Shang dynasty
or Yin dynasty Traditionally, the second of China's dynasties, following the Xia dynasty. Until excavations in the 20th century provided archaeological evidence for the Xia, the Shang was the first verifiable Chinese dynasty. Dates for its founding vary; traditionally its rule was said to have spanned 1766-1122 BC, but more recently the range has been given as 1600-1046 BC. Shang society was stratified: it included a king, local governors, nobles, and the masses, who engaged in agriculture. The Shang developed a 12-month, 360-day calendar with intercalary months added as necessary. The Chinese writing system began to develop; numerous records and ceremonial inscriptions survive. Surviving artifacts include musical instruments, superb bronze vessels, pottery for ceremonial and daily use, and jade and ivory ornaments. Cowrie shells were used as currency. See also Erlitou culture; Zhou dynasty
Song dynasty
or Sung dynasty (960-1279) Chinese dynasty that united the entire country until 1127 and the southern portion until 1279, during which time northern China was controlled by the Juchen tribes. During the Song, commerce flourished, paper currency came into increasing use, and several cities boasted populations exceeding one million people. Wang Anshi worked for more equitable taxation and state-centred solutions for China's problems. Widespread printing brought increased literacy and a broader elite, and private academies and state schools sent increasing numbers of candidates through the Chinese examination system. In the 12th century, Zhu Xi systemized Neo-Confucianism. The Song was also an era of scholarship: groundbreaking treatises on architecture and botany were published, as was the famous history Zizhi tongjian ("Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government") of Sima Guang. Landscape painting is said to have reached its peak during the Northern Song, which was also famous for its magnificent architecture. See also Taizu
Sui dynasty
(581-618) Short-lived Chinese dynasty that unified northern and southern China after centuries of division. Under the Sui, the cultural and artistic renaissance that was to reach its height under the succeeding Tang dynasty was set in motion. The first Sui emperor, Wendi, established uniform institutions of government throughout the country, promulgated a new legal system, conducted a census, recruited officials through examinations, and reestablished Confucian rituals. The Sui conducted three costly and unsuccessful campaigns against the Korean kingdom of Kogury . The Sui capital at Chang'an was, in design, six times the size of the modern city of Xi'an at the same site
Tang dynasty
or T'ang dynasty (618-907) Chinese dynasty that succeeded the short-lived Sui and became a golden age for poetry, sculpture, and Buddhism. The Tang capital of Chang'an became a great international metropolis, with traders and embassies from Central Asia, Arabia, Persia, Korea, and Japan passing through. A Nestorian Christian community also existed there, while mosques were established in Guangzhou (Canton). The economy flourished in the 8th-9th centuries, with a network of rural market towns growing up to join the metropolitan markets of Chang'an and Luoyang. Buddhism enjoyed great favour, and there were new translations of the Buddhist scriptures and growth of indigenous sects, including Chan (see Zen). Poetry was the greatest glory of the period; nearly 50,000 works by 2,000 poets survive. Foreign music and dance became popular, and ancient orchestras were revived. The Tang government never completely controlled the northern Chinese border, where nomad tribes made constant incursions; periodic rebellions from the mid-8th century onward also weakened its power (see An Lushan Rebellion). In its later years, the government's focus was on eastern and southeastern China rather than Central Asia. See also Taizong; Wu Hou
Thani dynasty
also l Thn ("Thn family") Ruling family of Qatar. They are from the Tamm tribe, which migrated eastward from central Arabia to the Qatar peninsula in the mid-19th century. There have been eight leaders from 1868 to the present. The second sheikh, Qsim ibn Muammad (1878-1913), is considered Qatar's founder. The seventh sheikh, Khalfah ibn amad (r. 1972-95), was instramental in obtaining Qatar's independence from Britain in 1971 and became the first emir. The clan comprises about two-fifths of the native Qatari population
Toungoo dynasty
Ruling house in Myanmar (Burma) from the 15th or 16th century to the 18th century. The founder of the empire is considered to be either King Minkyinyo (r. 1486-1531) or his son Tabinshwehti (r. 1531-50), who expanded the empire and welded it together. Tabinshwehti's brother-in-law Bayinnaung (r. 1551-81) extended the dynasty's reach to include much of Laos and Siam (Thailand). No ruler ever managed to conquer Arakan (in southern Myanmar), though Tabinshwehti, Bayinnaung, and others tried. The empire slowly disintegrated after Bayinnaung's death, but the dynasty continued until 1752
Umayyad dynasty
(661-750) First great Muslim dynasty. It was founded by Muwiyah I, who triumphed over the Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law, Al, to become the fifth caliph. He moved the capital from Medina to Damascus and used the Syrian army to extend the Arab empire. The Umayyads' greatest period was under Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705), when their empire extended from Spain to Central Asia and India. Their decline began with a defeat by the Byzantine Empire in 717; intertribal feuding, discontent among non-Arab Muslim converts, and the failure of financial reforms eventually led to their unseating by the Abbsid dynasty. See also Abd al-Rahmn III; Ab Muslim; al-Husayn ibn Al
Vakataka dynasty
Indian ruling house that originated in the central Deccan in the mid-3rd century AD. The Vakataka empire is believed to have extended from Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra in the south and to have spanned the peninsula from west to east. In the 4th century the Vakatakas were allied by marriage to the Gupta dynasty, and Gupta cultural influence was significant. The Vakatakas are noted for having encouraged arts and letters
Vasa dynasty
Swedish (and Polish) royal dynasty. Its founder was Gustav Eriksson Vasa, regent of Sweden (1521) and king (1523) as Gustav I Vasa. His descendants reigned in Sweden until 1818, the last being Charles XIII. A grandson of Gustav became king of Poland (1587-1632) as Sigismund III Vasa, also ruling Sweden in the years 1592-99. He was succeeded as king of Poland by his sons, Wladyslaw IV Vasa (r. 1632-48) and John II Casimir Vasa (r.1648-68), after which the dynasty ended in Poland
Welf dynasty
Dynasty of German nobles and rulers. They descended from Count Welf of Bavaria (early 9th century), whose daughters married Louis I the Pious and Louis the German. The Welfs were linked to the House of Este in the 11th century. They supported the papal party against Emperor Henry IV and were rivals of the Hohenstaufens in central Europe and in Italy (where their name was Guelpho; see Guelphs and Ghibellines). As part of the House of Hanover, they became rulers of Britain
Xia dynasty
or Hsia dynasty ( 2070- 1600 BC) Quasi-legendary first dynasty of China, preceding the Shang. In Chinese histories it is said to have been founded by Yu and to have had 17 rulers. Archaeological sites in Henan and Shanxi provinces in northeastern and eastern China have been tentatively identified with Xia culture. See also Erlitou culture
Yuan dynasty
or Yüan dynasty or Mongol dynasty (1206-1368) Dynasty established in China by Mongol nomads. Genghis Khan occupied northern China in 1215, but not until 1279 did Kublai Khan take control of southern China. The Mongols established their capital at Beijing (then called Dadu). They rebuilt the Grand Canal and put the roads and postal stations in good order. Paper money, which had had limited circulation under the Song, came to be used throughout the empire. Advances were made in astronomy, medicine, and mathematics, and trade was carried out throughout the Mongol empire from the plains of eastern Europe across the steppes to Mongolia and China. Many foreigners came to China (notably Marco Polo), and many Chinese traveled to Iran, Russia, and even western Europe. The Chinese resented the Mongol conquerors, whose governmental system discriminated against them. Chinese artists demonstrated passive resistance by withdrawing and turning to personal expression. Literati painting became popular; the novel developed, and new dramatic forms also appeared. Disputes over succession weakened the central government from 1300 on, and rebellions were frequent, many connected with secret societies such as the Red Turbans. The dynasty was overthrown in 1368 by the future Hongwu emperor. See also Ming dynasty
Zhou dynasty
or Chou dynasty (1046-256 BC) Ancient Chinese dynasty that gave China its historically identifying political and cultural characteristics. The period before 771 BC is known as the Western Zhou; the period from 771 BC on is called the Eastern Zhou and is further divided into the Spring and Autumn period (770-476) and the Warring States period (475-221). During the Zhou dynasty, iron, ox-drawn plows, crossbows, and horseback riding were introduced; large-scale irrigation projects were instituted; the Chinese writing system was further developed; and the great Chinese philosophers of antiquity, including Confucius, Mencius, and Zhuangzi, lived and taught. Pottery and bronzework expanded on the traditions of the earlier Shang dynasty, as did work in jade and lacquer
capetian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328
carolingian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751 to 987
Pertaining to a dynasty
Of or relating to a dynasty or line of kings
{s} of or pertaining to a dynasty, of or pertaining to a succession of rulers from the same family
Dynastic means typical of or relating to a dynasty. dynastic rule
of or relating to or characteristic of a dynasty
plural of dynasty
flavian dynasty
a dynasty of Roman emperors from 69 to 96 including Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian
han dynasty
Han: imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
yuan dynasty
Yuan: the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368