MD a state on the east coast of the US, and one of the 13 original states of the US. Its largest city is Baltimore, which is a busy port. State (pop., 2000: 5,296,486), eastern U.S. A Middle Atlantic state, it is deeply indented by Chesapeake Bay and is bordered by Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, the District of Columbia, and West Virginia. It covers 10,460 sq mi (27,091 sq km); its capital is Annapolis. The state's main geographic regions are the coastal plain along Chesapeake Bay, the rich farming country of the Piedmont plateau, and the Appalachian Mountains. First occupied by late Ice Age hunters 10,000 BC, the area was later inhabited by the Nanticoke and Piscataway tribes. Capt. John Smith charted the Chesapeake Bay region in 1608. Maryland was included in a charter given by the British king to Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Leonard Calvert, his brother, founded the first settlement in 1634 at St. Marys City. Maryland became the first American colony to establish religious freedom. Its boundary dispute with Pennsylvania was settled in the 1760s with the drawing of the Mason-Dixon Line. In 1788 Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. The state ceded the District of Columbia as the site for a new federal capital in 1791. It was involved in the War of 1812 (see Fort McHenry). The U.S. Naval Academy was founded at Annapolis in 1845. Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, but strong Southern sentiments resulted in the imposition of martial law. After the war, it prospered as an important entrepôt for consumer goods to the South and Midwest. During the 20th century its proximity to the national capital spurred population growth. Its economy is based primarily on government services and manufacturing
Dental prosthetic replacing a missing tooth by a bridging piece which is glued to the backs of the adjacent teeth (as opposed to an ordinary dental bridge which is attached by grinding down the adjacent teeth and covering them). The Maryland Bridge is considered to be an ultra-conservative treatment with minimal grinding of the adjoining teeth
(1819) Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that affirmed the constitutional doctrine of Congress's implied powers. The case concerned the legitimacy of the authority of a newly created national bank to control the issuance of currency by the states, including Maryland. The unanimous opinion, written by John Marshall, established that Congress possesses not only the powers expressly conferred on it by the Constitution but also the authority appropriate to the utilization of such powers, in this case the creation of such a bank. This doctrine, drawn from the "elastic clause" of Article 1, became a significant factor in the steady growth of federal powers. It also bolstered the power of judicial review established in Marbury v. Madison (1803)
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