The branch of philosophy which studies fundamental principles intended to describe or explain all that is, and which are not themselves explained by anything more fundamental; the study of first principles; the study of being insofar as it is being (ens in quantum ens)
Philosophers sometimes say that metaphysics is the study of the ultimate nature of the universe.
Metaphysics is a part of philosophy which is concerned with understanding reality and developing theories about what exists and how we know that it exists. the part of philosophy that is concerned with trying to understand and describe the nature of truth, life, and reality. Branch of philosophy that studies the ultimate structure and constitution of reality i. e., of that which is real, insofar as it is real. The term, which means literally "what comes after physics," was used to refer to the treatise by Aristotle on what he himself called "first philosophy." In the history of Western philosophy, metaphysics has been understood in various ways: as an inquiry into what basic categories of things there are (e.g., the mental and the physical); as the study of reality, as opposed to appearance; as the study of the world as a whole; and as a theory of first principles. Some basic problems in the history of metaphysics are the problem of universals i.e., the problem of the nature of universals and their relation to so-called particulars; the existence of God; the mind-body problem; and the problem of the nature of material, or external, objects. Major types of metaphysical theory include Platonism, Aristotelianism, Thomism, Cartesianism (See also dualism), idealism, realism, and materialism
Traditionally, the attempt to determine what general sorts of things there are in the universe (particularly those of a bsic, non-reducible sort) But to do this is also to sugest a classification of the sciences so that too is metaphysics Examples: 1) materialism = the view that only material objects are real; 2) dualism = both bodies and minds are real and basic
-Metaphysics, or Speculative Philosophy, "is the endeavour to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every element of our experience can be interpreted By this notion of 'interpretation' I mean that everything of which we are conscious, as enjoyed, perceived, willed, or thought, shall have the character of a particular instance of the general scheme The true method of philosophical construction is to frame a scheme of ideas, the best that one can, and unflinchingly to explore the interpretation of experience in terms of that scheme" [PR 4, x]
Originally a title for those books of Aristotle's which came after the Physics, the term refers to any inquiry which raises questions about reality that lie outside of those capable of being addressed by the methods of science
There are two definitions of this word: the one used by Marx and Engels, and the other more traditional conception In Marxist terminology, metaphysics is a method which holds that things are final and immutable, independent of one another and denies that inherent contradictions are the source of the development of nature and society but rather that nature is at rest, unchanging and static All things can be investigated as separate from each other Nowadays, the word reductionism would often be used instead
the highest form of philosophy, which attempts to gain knowledge of the ideas Because the traditional, speculative perspective fails to succeed in this task, Kant suggests a new, hypothetical perspective for metaphysics Metaphysics can succeed only when it is preceded by Critique (Cf Critique )
The science of real as distinguished from phenomenal being; ontology; also, the science of being, with reference to its abstract and universal conditions, as distinguished from the science of determined or concrete being; the science of the conceptions and relations which are necessarily implied as true of every kind of being; philosophy in general; first principles, or the science of first principles
(Greek, after-physics) The disciples of Aristotle thought that matter or nature should be studied before mind The Greek for matter or nature is physics, and the science of its causes and effects physics Meta-physics is the Greek for after-physics Sir James Mackintosh takes a less intentional view of the case, and says the word arose from the mere accident of the compilers who sorted the treatises of Aristotle, and placed that upon mind and intelligence after that upon matter and nature The science of metaphysics is the consideration of things in the abstract- that is, divested of their accidents, relations, and matter
a philosophical means of looking at the nature of the self and the world about the self In this Handbook, metaphysical is used to describe the non-physical world, the world of thoughts, ideals, emotions and spirit The physical world is seen as the space/time universe which is ruled by Euclidean geometry The metaphysical world is seen as the time/space universe where infinity and eternity hold sway
The branch of philosophy asking "what exists?" What entities form this universe? Metaphysical studies can concern difficult, perhaps unanswerable, questions bordering theology Ayer, (1971) used the term "transcendent metaphysics" for proposals of existence beyond the observable universe Like Kant, he denied them a part in logic As used here, metaphysics includes any suggestion that something, not immediately obvious, does exist
A field of abstract thought and philosophy about topics not on the concrete or physical level of understanding This includes subjects like existence, the soul, being, the supernatural, astral travel, psychicism, and so on
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