the leader of Sinn Féin, the Irish political party that wants Northern Ireland to unite with the Republic of Ireland (1948- ). orig. Gerard Adams born Oct. 6, 1948, Belfast, N.Ire. Irish nationalist and president of Sinn Féin, the political wing of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). He was interned without trial as a suspected terrorist in 1972, 1973-76, and 1978. He became vice president of Sinn Féin in 1978 and persuaded the group to enter candidates in the 1981 elections. Elected to the British House of Commons in 1983, he refused to take the oath of allegiance and never took his seat. In 1991, as Sinn Féin's president (from 1983), he began to shift its strategy toward negotiation; his efforts led to indirect talks with the British government and a 1993 agreement (the Downing Street Declaration) by the British and Irish prime ministers to consider the future of Northern Ireland. He was credited with the IRA's 1994 cease-fire announcement and was pivotal in winning support for the Good Friday Agreement (1998), which led to the creation of a power-sharing assembly in Northern Ireland
orig. Gerald Joseph Mulligan born April 6, 1927, Queens Village, Long Island, N.Y., U.S. died Jan. 20, 1996, Darien, Conn. U.S. jazz saxophonist, pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader. He worked as staff arranger for Gene Krupa's band in 1946, later writing arrangements and playing for the Miles Davis nonet's Birth of the Cool recordings (1949). Mulligan became one of the best-known exponents of cool jazz (see bebop). In 1952 he formed a pianoless quartet featuring trumpeter Chet Baker
born July 17, 1744, Marblehead, Mass. died Nov. 23, 1814, Washington, D.C., U.S. U.S. statesman. An early advocate of independence, he was a member of the Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence. After serving in the U.S. House of Representatives (1789-93), he was sent to France in 1797 with John Marshall and Charles C. Pinckney to resolve disputes that resulted in the XYZ Affair. During his term as governor of Massachusetts (1810-11) the state legislature redrew district lines to favour Democratic-Republican candidates against the Federalists, a practice that became known as gerrymandering. In 1812 he advocated war with Britain and was elected vice president on a ticket with James Madison
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