carl

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carl orff
özellikle "Carmina Burana" adlı oratoryosuyla tanınmış Alman bestecisi
İngilizce - İngilizce
A male given name, a variant of Charles
A female hemp plant
A rude, rustic man; a churl
To snarl; to talk grumpily or gruffly

full of ache, sorrow, and grief, children again, dizzards, they carle many times as they sit, and talk to themselves, they are angry, waspish, displeased with everything .

{i} male first name
a variant of Charles
Andre Carl Bach Carl Philipp Emanuel Carl XVI Gustaf Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus Clausewitz Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Correns Carl Erich Cuno Wilhelm Carl Josef Ditters von Dittersdorf Carl Carl Ditters Dreyer Carl Theodor Fabergé Peter Carl Gauss Carl Friedrich Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss Goldmark Peter Carl Grimm Jacob Ludwig Carl and Wilhelm Carl Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel Hammarskjöld Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Heidenstam Carl Gustaf Verner von Jung Carl Gustav Laemmle Carl Laval Carl Gustaf Patrik de Licklider Joseph Carl Robnett Carl von Linné Ludwig Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Mannerheim Carl Gustaf Emil Meinhof Carl Nielsen Carl August Orff Carl Pauling Linus Carl Peters Carl Reiner Carl Rogers Carl Ransom Sagan Carl Edward Sandburg Carl Schurz Carl Spaatz Carl Andrews Spitteler Carl Carl Adolf von Sydow Van Doren Carl Clinton and Mark Virchow Rudolf Carl Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Zeiss Carl
Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries A consortium of six large research libraries in Colorado The CARL database includes the combined holdings of these libraries and a variety of other data CARL also operates UnCover, a document delivery system for journal articles
the online catalog system used by the University of Hawai'i system libraries
Large stalks of hemp which bear the seed; called also carl hemp
See citation, below
The female hemp plant
A kind of food
Carl Andre
born Sept. 16, 1935, Quincy, Mass., U.S. U.S. sculptor. The son of a draftsman for a shipbuilding firm, he attended Phillips Andover Academy and Northeastern University. He moved to New York City in 1957 and soon was producing large-scale horizontal sculptures out of steel plates, slabs of granite, styrofoam planks, bricks, and cement blocks, using a grid system based on simple mathematical principles. His work from this period was often intended to be placed directly on the gallery or museum floor; its monumental austerity was central to the Minimalist movement. Beginning in the 1970s he also experimented with large-scale wood sculpture
Carl Andrews Spaatz
known as Tooey Spaatz born June 28, 1891, Boyertown, Pa., U.S. died July 14, 1974, Washington, D.C. U.S. air-force officer. He flew as a combat pilot during World War I. During World War II he commanded the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe (1944), directing the strategic bombing of Germany. In 1945, though personally opposed to using atomic bombs against cities, he directed the atomic bombing of Japan under orders of Pres. Harry Truman. In 1947 he became the first chief of staff of the independent Air Force
Carl August Nielsen
born June 9, 1865, Sortelung, near Norre Lyndelse, Den. died Oct. 3, 1931, Copenhagen Danish composer. He studied violin and trumpet as a child and began composing by imitating classical models. In 1890 he went to Germany to learn of newer developments and met Johannes Brahms, whose music came to influence his own. His individual style still following classical forms but using intense chromaticism combined with a lyric, melodic strain emerged after 1900. The last five of his six symphonies (1902-25) are the core of his work, but he also composed many short orchestra pieces, piano and chamber music, concertos for violin, flute, and clarinet, and a wind quintet
Carl August Peter Cornelius
{i} Peter Cornelius (1824-1874), German composer and poet
Carl B. Stokes
{i} Carl Burton Stokes (1927-1996), United States politician who was the mayor of Cleveland (Ohio, USA) from 1967 to 1971, the first African American mayor of a major city in the USA
Carl Boeck
{i} (1808-1875) Norwegian doctor and lecturer on skin diseases and syphilis
Carl Burton Stokes
{i} Carl Stokes (1927-1996), United States politician who was the mayor of Cleveland (Ohio, USA) from 1967 to 1971, the first African American mayor of a major city in the USA
Carl Clinton and Mark Van Doren
v. born Sept. 10, 1885, Hope, Ill., U.S. died July 18, 1950, Torrington, Conn. born June 13, 1894, Hope, Ill. died Dec. 10, 1972, Torrington, Conn. U.S. writers and teachers. Carl, who taught at Columbia University from 1911 to 1930, edited the Cambridge History of American Literature (1917-21) and journals. His critical works include the biography Benjamin Franklin (1938, Pulitzer Prize). Mark taught at Columbia from 1920 to 1959. He published more than 20 volumes of verse, including Spring Thunder (1924) and Collected Poems (1922-38) (1939, Pulitzer Prize). He wrote three novels and several volumes of short stories and edited anthologies. His literary criticism includes works on John Dryden, William Shakespeare, and Nathaniel Hawthorne as well as Introduction to Poetry (1951), which examines shorter classic poems of English and American literature
Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf
orig. Carl Ditters born Nov. 2, 1739, Vienna, Austria died Oct. 24, 1799, Rothlhotta Castle, Neuhof, Bohemia Austrian composer. A violin prodigy, he served as kapellmeister at the court of the prince-bishop of Breslau (1770-95). Though ennobled by the empress in 1773, he apparently declined the offer of the post of kapellmeister at the imperial court in Vienna. Extremely prolific, he wrote some 120 symphonies, some 40 concertos (many for violin), sacred choral works, and many chamber pieces. Most important are some 40 stage works, particularly his singspiels, including Doctor und Apotheker (1786) and Die Liebe im Narrenhause (1787)
Carl Edward Sagan
born Nov. 9, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S. died Dec. 20, 1996, Seattle, Wash. U.S. astronomer and science writer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. At the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962-68), he focused on planetary astronomy and on SETI efforts to find extraterrestrial life. He gained prominence as a popular science writer and commentator noted for his clear writing and enthusiasm; his Dragons of Eden (1977) won a Pulitzer Prize. He coproduced and narrated the television series Cosmos (1980); its companion book became the best-selling English-language science book of all time. In the 1980s he studied the environmental effects of nuclear war and helped popularize the term nuclear winter
Carl Erich Correns
born Sept. 19, 1864, Munich, Ger. died Feb. 14, 1933, Berlin German botanist and geneticist. In the same year as Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries (1900), he independently rediscovered Gregor Mendel's paper outlining the principles of heredity. He conducted research with garden peas, from which he drew the same conclusions Mendel had. He helped provide the overwhelming body of evidence in support of Mendel's thesis, anticipating Thomas Hunt Morgan's development of the concept of linkage when he developed a theory of a physical coupling of genetic factors to account for the consistent inheritance of certain traits together. See also William Bateson
Carl F W Ludwig
born Dec. 29, 1816, Witzenhausen, near Kassel, Hesse-Kassel died April 23, 1895, Leipzig, Ger. German physician. He invented devices to record arterial blood-pressure changes, measure blood flow, and separate gases from blood (which established their role in blood purification). He was the first to keep animal organs alive outside the body. His paper on urine secretion in 1844 hypothesized a filtering role for the kidney. Nearly 200 of Ludwig's students became prominent scientists, and he is regarded as the founder of the physicochemical school of physiology
Carl Friedlander
{i} (1847-1887) German pathologist
Carl Friedrich Gauss
orig. Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss born April 30, 1777, Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick died Feb. 23, 1855, Göttingen, Hanover German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. Born to poor parents, he was a prodigy of astounding depth. By his early teens he had already performed astonishing proofs. He published over 150 works and made such important contributions as the fundamental theorem of algebra (in his doctoral dissertation), the least squares method, Gauss-Jordan elimination (for solving matrix equations), and the bell curve, or Gaussian error curve (see normal distribution). Gauss made important contributions to physics and astronomy and pioneered the application of mathematics to gravitation, electricity, and magnetism. He also developed the fields of potential theory and real analysis. With Archimedes and Newton, he is one of the greatest mathematicians of all time
Carl Friedrich Gauss
(1777-1855) German mathematician and scientist, major contributor to number theory and electromagnetic theory
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig
born Dec. 29, 1816, Witzenhausen, near Kassel, Hesse-Kassel died April 23, 1895, Leipzig, Ger. German physician. He invented devices to record arterial blood-pressure changes, measure blood flow, and separate gases from blood (which established their role in blood purification). He was the first to keep animal organs alive outside the body. His paper on urine secretion in 1844 hypothesized a filtering role for the kidney. Nearly 200 of Ludwig's students became prominent scientists, and he is regarded as the founder of the physicochemical school of physiology
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
born June 4, 1867, Villnäs, Fin. died Jan. 27, 1951, Lausanne, Switz. Finnish soldier and president of Finland (1944-46). A career officer in the Russian imperial army (1889-1917), he commanded the anti-Bolshevik forces (1918) in the Finnish Civil War and expelled the Soviet forces. He served as regent of Finland (1918-19) until the new republic was declared. As chairman of the national defense council (1931-39) he oversaw construction of the Mannerheim line of fortifications across the Karelian Isthmus. As commander in chief of Finnish forces (1939-40, 1941-44), he won initial successes against greatly superior Soviet forces in the Russo-Finnish War (1939-40). Named president of the Finnish republic in 1944, he negotiated a peace agreement with the Soviets
Carl Gustaf Mannerheim
born June 4, 1867, Villnäs, Fin. died Jan. 27, 1951, Lausanne, Switz. Finnish soldier and president of Finland (1944-46). A career officer in the Russian imperial army (1889-1917), he commanded the anti-Bolshevik forces (1918) in the Finnish Civil War and expelled the Soviet forces. He served as regent of Finland (1918-19) until the new republic was declared. As chairman of the national defense council (1931-39) he oversaw construction of the Mannerheim line of fortifications across the Karelian Isthmus. As commander in chief of Finnish forces (1939-40, 1941-44), he won initial successes against greatly superior Soviet forces in the Russo-Finnish War (1939-40). Named president of the Finnish republic in 1944, he negotiated a peace agreement with the Soviets
Carl Gustaf Mosander
{i} (1797-1858) physicist from Sweden who discovered many earth-elements that have similar characteristics
Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval
born May 9, 1845, Blasenborg, Swed. died Feb. 2, 1913, Stockholm Swedish scientist, engineer, and inventor. Laval built his first impulse steam turbine in 1882. Further advances followed, including a reversible turbine for marine use. A Laval reaction turbine attained a speed of 42,000 revolutions per minute. By 1896 he was operating a complete power plant using an initial steam pressure of 3,400 lbs per sq in. He invented and developed the divergent nozzle to deliver steam to the turbine blades. His flexible shaft and double-helical gear formed the foundation for most subsequent steam turbine development
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam
v. born July 6, 1859, Olshammar, Swed. died May 20, 1940, vralid Swedish poet and novelist. His first book of poems, Pilgrimage and Wander Years (1888), drew on his years living in southern Europe and the Middle East and was an immediate success. With his essay "Renaissance" (1889), he became a leader of the opposition in Sweden to naturalism, calling for a rebirth of the literature of fantasy, beauty, and nationalism. Many of the poems he wrote in this vein are translated in Sweden's Laureate (1919). He also wrote historical fiction, including The Charles Men (1897-98) and The Tree of the Folkungs (1905-07). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1916
Carl Gustav Jung
a Swiss psychiatrist who studied the importance of dreams and religion in problems of the mind, and divided people into two groups, introverts and extroverts. Jung developed the idea of the collective unconscious, the belief that people's feelings and reactions are often based on deep memories of human experience in the past. He worked with Sigmund Freud until they had a serious disagreement. (1875-1961). born July 26, 1875, Kesswil, Switz. died June 6, 1961, Küsnacht Swiss psychiatrist. As a youth he read widely in philosophy and theology. After taking his medical degree (1902), he worked in Zürich with Eugen Bleuler on studies of mental illness. From this research emerged Jung's notion of the complex, or cluster of emotionally charged (and largely unconscious) associations. Between 1907 and 1912 he was Sigmund Freud's close collaborator and most likely successor, but he broke with Freud over the latter's insistence on the sexual basis of neuroses. In the succeeding years he founded the field of analytic psychology, a response to Freud's psychoanalysis. Jung advanced the concepts of the introvert and extrovert personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious (the pool of human experience passed from generation to generation). He went on to formulate new psychotherapeutic techniques designed to reacquaint the person with his unique "myth" or place in the collective unconscious, as expressed in dream and imagination. Sometimes criticized as disguised religion and for its lack of verifiability, his work has been influential in religion and literature as well as psychiatry. His important works include The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912; revised as Symbols of Transformation), Psychological Types (1921), Psychology and Religion (1938), and Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1962)
Carl Gustav Jung
{i} Carl Jung (1875-1961), Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist who studied with Sigmund Freud and later developed his own psychological theories
Carl Gustave
{i} type of sub-machine gun
Carl Jung
{i} Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist who studied with Sigmund Freud and later developed his own psychological theories
Carl Laemmle
born Jan. 17, 1867, Laupheim, Ger. died Sept. 24, 1939, Beverly Hills, Calif., U.S. German-born U.S. film producer. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1884, he worked at various jobs in Chicago before opening a nickelodeon there in 1906 and becoming a leading film distributor. He founded the Independent Motion Picture Co. in 1909 and induced stars such as Mary Pickford to join his studio. Fighting off monopoly control by the Motion Picture Patents Co., he produced 100 short films by 1910. In 1912 he merged with smaller companies to form Universal Pictures, and in 1915 he opened its 230-acre studio in California. His employees included Irving Thalberg and Harry Cohn. He is considered the father of the Hollywood star system. Financial setbacks forced him to sell the company in 1935
Carl Lewis
born July 1, 1961, Birmingham, Ala., U.S. U.S. track-and-field athlete. He qualified for the 1980 Olympics but did not participate, because of the U.S. boycott of the Moscow games. At the 1984 Olympics he won the 100-m and 200-m races, the long jump, and the 4 100-m relay. At the 1988 Olympics he won the long jump (becoming the first athlete ever to win that event consecutively) and the 100-m race and received a silver medal in the 200-m. In 1992 he again won the long jump and anchored the winning U.S. 4 100-m relay team, and in 1996 he astounded observers by winning a fourth consecutive long-jump title
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber
born Nov. 18, 1786, Eutin, Holstein died June 5, 1826, London, Eng. German composer. Son of a musician and a theatre manager, and first cousin to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's wife, he was born with a deformed hip and was never strong. He took composition lessons with Michael Haydn (1737-1806) and with Abbé Vogler (1749-1814), who recommended him for a post in Breslau (1804-06). His operas began to have success, and he took over direction of the Prague Opera (1813-16), which he saved from ruin, but finding little time for composition, he resigned. Showing signs of the tuberculosis that would kill him, he began to compose more prolifically. Appointed kapellmeister for life in Dresden, he began work on his masterpiece, the opera The Freeshooter (1821), the premiere of which made him an international star. The libretto for his next opera, Euryanthe (1823), was so clumsy that its admirable music never succeeded, and his final opera, Oberon (1826), composed for London, was a success there but not elsewhere
Carl Maria von Weber
born Nov. 18, 1786, Eutin, Holstein died June 5, 1826, London, Eng. German composer. Son of a musician and a theatre manager, and first cousin to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's wife, he was born with a deformed hip and was never strong. He took composition lessons with Michael Haydn (1737-1806) and with Abbé Vogler (1749-1814), who recommended him for a post in Breslau (1804-06). His operas began to have success, and he took over direction of the Prague Opera (1813-16), which he saved from ruin, but finding little time for composition, he resigned. Showing signs of the tuberculosis that would kill him, he began to compose more prolifically. Appointed kapellmeister for life in Dresden, he began work on his masterpiece, the opera The Freeshooter (1821), the premiere of which made him an international star. The libretto for his next opera, Euryanthe (1823), was so clumsy that its admirable music never succeeded, and his final opera, Oberon (1826), composed for London, was a success there but not elsewhere
Carl Meinhof
born July 23, 1857, Barzwitz, near Schlawe, Pomerania, Prussia died Feb. 10, 1944, Greifswald, Ger. German scholar of African languages. A specialist in the Bantu languages who also studied Khoisan and other African language families, he was one of the first to treat African languages in terms of phonetics and morphology. His books include Outline of the Phonetics of the Bantu Languages (1899) and Principles of the Comparative Grammar of the Bantu Languages (1906)
Carl Nielsen
born June 9, 1865, Sortelung, near Norre Lyndelse, Den. died Oct. 3, 1931, Copenhagen Danish composer. He studied violin and trumpet as a child and began composing by imitating classical models. In 1890 he went to Germany to learn of newer developments and met Johannes Brahms, whose music came to influence his own. His individual style still following classical forms but using intense chromaticism combined with a lyric, melodic strain emerged after 1900. The last five of his six symphonies (1902-25) are the core of his work, but he also composed many short orchestra pieces, piano and chamber music, concertos for violin, flute, and clarinet, and a wind quintet
Carl Orff
born July 10, 1895, Munich, Ger. died March 29, 1982, Munich German composer and music educator. He trained at the Munich Academy and held several musical posts thereafter. In the 1920s he grew interested in early Baroque music and the association of music with movement. In 1924 he cofounded a school for which he devised a comprehensive music education program (Orff Schulwerk) involving improvisation on specially designed gamelan-like percussion instruments; the program has since come into wide international use. He typically used repetitive rhythms, bare harmonies, and powerfully direct vocal parts, as in his best-known work, the secular oratorio Carmina Burana (1937), which is based on a manuscript of medieval poems
Carl Peters
born Sept. 27, 1856, Neuhaus an der Elbe, Hanover died Sept. 10, 1918, Bad Harzburg, Ger. German explorer and colonizer in East Africa. After studying British principles of colonization, he founded the Society for German Colonization (1884) and made treaties with chiefs in East Africa to cede their territories to him. He helped establish the German East African protectorate of Tanganyika and formed the German East Africa Company in 1885. He served as imperial high commissioner for Kilimanjaro (1891-97) and explored the Zambezi River (1899-1901), where he discovered relics of ancient cities and gold mines
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
born March 8, 1714, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar died Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg German composer. Second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received a superb musical education from his father. In 1740 he became harpsichordist at the court of Frederick II the Great, where he remained for 28 years, after which he moved to Hamburg to take the city's leading musical position. He was a leader of the Empfindsamkeit ("sensitivity") movement, which emphasized rhapsodic freedom and sentiment. A founder of the Classical style, he is one of the first composers in whose works sonata form becomes clearly evident. He wrote some 200 works for harpsichord, clavichord, and piano (including dozens of sonatas), some 50 keyboard concertos, many symphonies, and several oratorios and Passions. His Essay on the True Manner of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753) was a highly important practical music treatise
Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz
born June 1, 1780, Burg, near Magdeburg, Prussia died Nov. 16, 1831, Breslau, Silesia Prussian general and author. Born to a poor middle-class professional family, he joined the Prussian army at age 12 and entered the War College in Berlin in 1801. After serving with distinction in the Napoleonic Wars, he became a general and was appointed director of the War College (1818). His major work on strategy, On War (1832-37), analyzed the workings of military genius by isolating the factors that decide success in war. Rather than producing a rigid system of strategy, he emphasized the necessity of a critical approach to strategic problems. He asserted that war is a tool for achieving political aims rather than an end in itself ("merely the continuation of policy by other means") and argued that defensive warfare is both militarily and politically the stronger position. He also advocated the concept of total war. Published posthumously, On War had a profound influence on modern military strategy
Carl R Rogers
born Jan. 8, 1902, Oak Park, Ill., U.S. died Feb. 4, 1987, La Jolla, Calif. U.S. psychologist. He trained at Teachers College, Columbia University (Ph.D., 1931), and directed a children's agency in New York before taking teaching positions at various universities. In 1963 he helped found an institute for the study of the person in La Jolla, Calif. He is known as the originator of client-centred, or nondirective, psychotherapy, and he helped establish humanistic psychology. His writings include Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942), Client-Centered Therapy (1951), Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954), and On Becoming a Person (1961)
Carl Ransom Rogers
born Jan. 8, 1902, Oak Park, Ill., U.S. died Feb. 4, 1987, La Jolla, Calif. U.S. psychologist. He trained at Teachers College, Columbia University (Ph.D., 1931), and directed a children's agency in New York before taking teaching positions at various universities. In 1963 he helped found an institute for the study of the person in La Jolla, Calif. He is known as the originator of client-centred, or nondirective, psychotherapy, and he helped establish humanistic psychology. His writings include Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942), Client-Centered Therapy (1951), Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954), and On Becoming a Person (1961)
Carl Reiner
born March 20, 1922, Bronx, New York, N.Y., U.S. U.S. actor, writer, director, and producer. He acted on the stage before appearing with Sid Caesar in the television comedy series Your Show of Shows (1950-54). He created and produced The Dick Van Dyke Show (1961-66), for which he won several Emmy Awards. His novel Enter Laughing (1958) was adapted as a play (1963) and a movie (1967). He directed film comedies such as Where's Poppa (1970), Oh, God! (1977), and Fatal Instinct (1993). His son Rob Reiner (b. 1945) acted in various television series, including All in the Family (1971-78), and became a director of note
Carl Sagan
{i} (1934-1996) United States astronomer and writer who discovered that the surface of Venus was hot and noxious in an abnormal manner and researched the possibility of extraterrestrial life
Carl Sagan
a US astronomer (=a scientist who studies the stars) , who was especially interested in discovering whether there were living creatures in other parts of the universe. He made a popular series of television programmes about the universe, called Cosmos (1934-97). born Nov. 9, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S. died Dec. 20, 1996, Seattle, Wash. U.S. astronomer and science writer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. At the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962-68), he focused on planetary astronomy and on SETI efforts to find extraterrestrial life. He gained prominence as a popular science writer and commentator noted for his clear writing and enthusiasm; his Dragons of Eden (1977) won a Pulitzer Prize. He coproduced and narrated the television series Cosmos (1980); its companion book became the best-selling English-language science book of all time. In the 1980s he studied the environmental effects of nuclear war and helped popularize the term nuclear winter
Carl Sandburg
a US writer and poet who won Pulitzer Prizes for his books about the life of Abraham Lincoln and for his poetry, which is typically about cities and industry (1878-1967). born Jan. 6, 1878, Galesburg, Ill., U.S. died July 22, 1967, Flat Rock, N.C. U.S. poet, historian, novelist, and folklorist. Sandburg tried many occupations and fought in the Spanish-American War before moving to Chicago in 1913, where he worked in journalism. He won recognition in 1914 with poems, including "Chicago," perhaps his best-known, published in Poetry magazine. His Whitmanesque free verse eulogizing American workers appeared in such volumes as Smoke and Steel (1920) and The People, Yes (1936). The American Songbag (1927) and New American Songbag (1950) collect folk songs he performed. His other works include Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (1926), Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939, Pulitzer Prize), Remembrance Rock (1948), and four children's books, including Rootabaga Stories (1922)
Carl Schurz
born March 2, 1829, Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia died May 14, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S. German-U.S. politician and journalist. After participating in the abortive German revolution of 1848, he fled to the U.S. in 1852. He settled in Wisconsin, where he became active in the antislavery movement and the Republican Party. In the American Civil War he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and saw action in several battles. After the war he became a newspaper editor in St. Louis (1867-69), where he won election to the U.S. Senate (1869-75). As U.S. secretary of the interior (1877-81), he promoted civil-service reform and an improved Indian policy. He later edited the New York Evening Post and the Nation (1881-83) and wrote editorials for Harper's Weekly (1892-98). Pursuing his reform interests, he joined the Mugwumps (1884) and headed the National Civil Service Reform League (1892-1901)
Carl Spaatz
known as Tooey Spaatz born June 28, 1891, Boyertown, Pa., U.S. died July 14, 1974, Washington, D.C. U.S. air-force officer. He flew as a combat pilot during World War I. During World War II he commanded the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe (1944), directing the strategic bombing of Germany. In 1945, though personally opposed to using atomic bombs against cities, he directed the atomic bombing of Japan under orders of Pres. Harry Truman. In 1947 he became the first chief of staff of the independent Air Force
Carl Spitteler
born April 24, 1845, Liestal, Switz. died Dec. 29, 1924, Lucerne Swiss poet. He was a private tutor in Russia and Finland before he wrote his first great poetic work, the mythical epic Prometheus und Epimetheus (1881). His second great work was the epic The Olympic Spring (1900-05), in which he found full scope for bold invention and vividly expressive power. Late in life he rewrote his first epic as Prometheus the Long-Suffering (1924). Though known for his pessimistic yet heroic verse, he also wrote lyrical poems, stories, novels, and essays. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1919
Carl Stokes
{i} Carl Burton Stokes (1927-1996), United States politician who was the mayor of Cleveland (Ohio, USA) from 1967 to 1971, the first African American mayor of a major city in the USA
Carl Theodor Dreyer
born Feb. 3, 1889, Copenhagen, Den. died March 20, 1968, Copenhagen Danish film director. He entered the film industry as a writer of subtitles and became a scriptwriter and editor. His first film as a director was The President (1919); after several others, he made his most famous silent film, The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928). He created a new directorial style based on extensive close-ups and the use of authentic settings. His other films include Vampire (1932), the celebrated Day of Wrath (1943), The Word (1955), and Gertrud (1964)
Carl Wilhelm Boeck
{i} (1808-1875) Norwegian doctor and lecturer on skin diseases and syphilis
Carl XVI Gustaf
Swedish Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus born April 30, 1946, Stockholm, Swed. King of Sweden from 1973. Grandson of King Gustav VI Adolf (1882-1973), he became crown prince in 1950, his father having died in 1947. After studying at military schools, he became a naval officer. His accession occurred at a time when the role of the Swedish monarchy was being radically altered; the new constitutional laws of 1973 left the king with a solely symbolic function rather than a formal role in the country's administration
Carl Zeiss
born Sept. 11, 1816, Weimar, Thuringian States died Dec. 3, 1888, Jena German industrialist. In 1846 Zeiss opened a workshop for producing microscopes and other optical instruments. He later formed a partnership with the physicist and mathematician Ernst Abbe (1840-1905). The chemist Otto Schott developed about 100 new kinds of optical glass and numerous types of heat-resistant glass for the company. After Zeiss's death, Abbe donated the firm and his share in the glassworks to the Carl Zeiss Foundation; in 1923 Schott added his share in the glassworks
Carl and Mark Van Doren
v. born Sept. 10, 1885, Hope, Ill., U.S. died July 18, 1950, Torrington, Conn. born June 13, 1894, Hope, Ill. died Dec. 10, 1972, Torrington, Conn. U.S. writers and teachers. Carl, who taught at Columbia University from 1911 to 1930, edited the Cambridge History of American Literature (1917-21) and journals. His critical works include the biography Benjamin Franklin (1938, Pulitzer Prize). Mark taught at Columbia from 1920 to 1959. He published more than 20 volumes of verse, including Spring Thunder (1924) and Collected Poems (1922-38) (1939, Pulitzer Prize). He wrote three novels and several volumes of short stories and edited anthologies. His literary criticism includes works on John Dryden, William Shakespeare, and Nathaniel Hawthorne as well as Introduction to Poetry (1951), which examines shorter classic poems of English and American literature
Carl the Great
Charles the Great, Charlemagne (AD 742-814), king of the Franks, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Carl von Clausewitz
born June 1, 1780, Burg, near Magdeburg, Prussia died Nov. 16, 1831, Breslau, Silesia Prussian general and author. Born to a poor middle-class professional family, he joined the Prussian army at age 12 and entered the War College in Berlin in 1801. After serving with distinction in the Napoleonic Wars, he became a general and was appointed director of the War College (1818). His major work on strategy, On War (1832-37), analyzed the workings of military genius by isolating the factors that decide success in war. Rather than producing a rigid system of strategy, he emphasized the necessity of a critical approach to strategic problems. He asserted that war is a tool for achieving political aims rather than an end in itself ("merely the continuation of policy by other means") and argued that defensive warfare is both militarily and politically the stronger position. He also advocated the concept of total war. Published posthumously, On War had a profound influence on modern military strategy
carl orff
Orff: German musician who developed a widely used system for teaching music to children (1895-1982)
carl xvi gustav
king of Sweden since 1973 (born 1946)
carle
peasant; fellow
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld
born July 29, 1905, Jönköping, Swed. died Sept. 18, 1961, near Ndola, Northern Rhodesia Second secretary-general of the UN (1953-61). His father was prime minister of Sweden and chairman of the Nobel Prize Foundation. Hammarskjöld studied law and economics in Uppsala and Stockholm, then taught at Stockholm (1933-36). He served in the finance ministry, as president of the board of the Bank of Sweden, and in the foreign ministry, where he became chair of the Swedish delegation to the UN (1952). He was appointed secretary-general in 1953 and was reappointed in 1957. His first three years were quiet, but he subsequently dealt with the Suez Crisis, conflict in Lebanon and Jordan, and civil strife following the creation of the Republic of the Congo (1960). He died in a plane crash on a peace mission to Africa. He was posthumously awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1961. As secretary-general, Hammarskjöld is generally thought to have combined great moral force with subtlety in meeting international challenges
Jacob Ludwig Carl and Wilhelm Carl Grimm
known as the Brothers Grimm born Jan. 4, 1785, Hanau, Hesse-Kassel died Sept. 20, 1863, Berlin born Feb. 24, 1786, Hanau died Dec. 16, 1859, Berlin German folklorists and philologists. They spent most of their lives in literary research as librarians and professors at the Universities of Göttingen and Berlin. They are most famous for Kinder-und Hausmärchen (1812-15), known in English as Grimm's Fairy Tales, a collection of 200 tales taken mostly from oral sources, which helped establish the science of folklore. Together and separately, they also produced many other scholarly studies and editions. Wilhelm's chief solo work was The German Heroic Tale (1829); Jacob's German Mythology (1835) was a highly influential study of pre-Christian German faith and superstition. Jacob's extensive Deutsche Grammatik (1819-37), on the grammars of all Germanic languages, elaborates the important linguistic principle now known as Grimm's law. In the 1840s the brothers began work on the Deutsches Wörterbuch, a vast historical dictionary of the German language that required several generations to complete and remains the standard work of its kind
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider
born March 11, 1915, St. Louis, Mo., U.S. died June 26, 1990, Arlington, Mass. U.S. scientist. He studied math and physics and received a doctorate in psychology from the University of Rochester (N.Y.). He lectured at Harvard University before joining the faculty at MIT (1949-57, 1966-85). As a group leader at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the 1960s, he encouraged research into time-sharing and helped lay the groundwork for computer networking and ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet. He is known for his extensive work on human-computer interaction and interfaces. His influence led to the first American advanced-degree programs in computer science
Linus Carl Pauling
born Feb. 28, 1901, Portland, Ore., U.S. died Aug. 19, 1994, Big Sur, Calif. U.S. chemist. He received his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology and became a professor there in 1931. He was one of the first researchers to apply quantum mechanics to the study of molecular structures; to calculate interatomic distances and the angles between chemical bonds (see bonding), he effectively used X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, magnetic effects, and the heat of reaction. His book The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals (1939) became one of the century's most influential chemistry texts. He was the first recipient of the American Chemical Society's Langmuir Prize (1931) and later the first recipient of its Lewis medal (1951), and in 1954 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In 1962 his efforts on behalf of control of nuclear weapons and against nuclear testing brought him the Nobel Peace Prize, making him the first recipient of two unshared Nobel Prizes. In later years he devoted himself to the study of the prevention and treatment of illness by taking high doses of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C
Peter Carl Goldmark
born , Dec. 2, 1906, Budapest, Hung. died Dec. 7, 1977, Westchester county, N.Y., U.S. Hungarian-U.S. engineer. He earned a doctorate from the University of Vienna before immigrating to the U.S. in 1933. From 1936 to 1972 he worked at the Columbia Broadcasting System Laboratories. In 1940 he demonstrated the first commercial colour-television system; based on a rotating three-colour disk, his system found wide application in closed-circuit television for industry, medical institutions, and schools because his camera was much smaller, lighter, and easier to maintain than those that eventually came to be used in commercial television. In 1948 he introduced the long-playing (LP) phonograph record, which revolutionized the recording industry. In 1950 he developed the scanning system that would allow the U.S. Lunar Orbiter spacecraft (launched in 1966) to relay photographs 238,000 mi (380,000 km) from the Moon to Earth
Rudolf Carl Virchow
v. born Oct. 13, 1821, Schivelbein, Pomerania, Prussia died Sept. 5, 1902, Berlin German pathologist, anthropologist, and statesman. In 1847 he cofounded the pathology journal now named for him (Virchows Archiv). He held the first chairs of pathological anatomy at the Universities of Würzburg (1849-56) and Berlin (1856-1902). In 1861 he was elected to the Prussian Diet and founded the Progressive Party. He coined the terms thrombosis and embolism while disproving the theory that phlebitis causes most diseases. His work supported emerging ideas on cell division and metabolism, pointing out that cell division accounted for the multiplication of cells to form tissues. His rejection of the theory that bacteria cause disease and of Ignaz Semmelweis's advocacy of antisepsis delayed the use of antiseptics. Virchow also founded two anthropological societies and accompanied Heinrich Schliemann to Troy (1879) and Egypt (1888)
USS Carl Vinson
US aircraft carrier that participated in the "Desert Fox" operation
Wilhelm Carl Josef Cuno
born July 2, 1876, Suhl, Ger. died Jan. 3, 1933, Aumühle German politician and business leader. After serving in government positions from 1907, in 1918 he became general director of the Hamburg-American Line, the largest German shipping concern. He served as chancellor of the Weimar Republic (1922-23), enjoying the strong support of German business and industry but failing to readjust war reparations or halt inflation. During the Ruhr occupation he urged a national policy of passive resistance, which ultimately overtaxed the economy. Obliged to resign, he returned to Hamburg-American and again served as chairman (1926-33)
carl

    Heceleme

    Carl

    Türkçe nasıl söylenir

    kärl

    Telaffuz

    /ˈkärl/ /ˈkɑːrl/

    Etimoloji

    (noun.) before 12th century. Old English carl, from Old Norse karl (“man, husband”)

    Günün kelimesi

    encomium