A monotheistic religion that originated with the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) having the same roots as Christianity and Judaism; its revelatory scripture is the Qur'an; its followers are Muslim
A monotheistic religion that originated with the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) having the same roots as Christianity and Judaism; its revelatory scripture is the Quran; its followers are Muslim
Some people use Islam to refer to all the countries where Islam is the main religion. relations between Islam and the West. Major world religion founded by Muhammad in Arabia in the early 7th century AD. The Arabic word islam means "submission" specifically, submission to the will of the one God, called Allah in Arabic. Islam is a strictly monotheistic religion, and its adherents, called Muslims, regard the Prophet Muhammad as the last and most perfect of God's messengers, who include Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others. The sacred scripture of Islam is the Qurn, which contains God's revelations to Muhammad. The sayings and deeds of the Prophet recounted in the sunna are also an important source of belief and practice in Islam. The religious obligations of all Muslims are summed up in the Five Pillars of Islam, which include belief in God and his Prophet and obligations of prayer, charity, pilgrimage, and fasting. The fundamental concept in Islam is the Sharh, or Law, which embraces the total way of life commanded by God. Observant Muslims pray five times a day and join in community worship on Fridays at the mosque, where worship is led by an imam. Every believer is required to make a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city, at least once in a lifetime, barring poverty or physical incapacity. The month of Ramadan is set aside for fasting. Alcohol and pork are always forbidden, as are gambling, usury, fraud, slander, and the making of images. In addition to celebrating the breaking of the fast of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate Muhammad's birthday (see mawlid) and his ascension into heaven (see mirj). The d al-A festival inaugurates the season of pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims are enjoined to defend Islam against unbelievers through jihad. Divisions occurred early in Islam, brought about by disputes over the succession to the caliphate (see caliph). About 90% of Muslims belong to the Sunnite branch. The Shites broke away in the 7th century and later gave rise to other sects, including the Ismls. Another significant element in Islam is the mysticism known as Sufism. Since the 19th century the concept of the Islamic community has inspired Muslim peoples to cast off Western colonial rule, and in the late 20th century fundamentalist movements (see Islamic fundamentalism) threatened or toppled a number of secular Middle Eastern governments. In the early 21st century, there were more than 1.2 billion Muslims in the world. Islam Pillars of Nation of Islam Sarekat Islam
A religious and cultural organization founded in 1931 in the United States, espousing Islamic principles and favoring political, social, and economic independence for African Americans. a US black rights organization, which was founded in 1930 by Farad Mohammad. For many years its leader was Elijah Muhammad until his death in 1975. Its members have included Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali. or Black Muslims African American religious movement that mingles elements of Islam and black nationalism. It was founded in 1931 by Wallace D. Fard, who established its first mosque in Detroit, Mich. Fard retired into obscurity and his assistant Elijah Muhammad, who founded a second temple in Chicago, took over in 1934. He asserted the moral and cultural superiority of Africans over whites and urged African Americans to renounce Christianity as a tool of the oppressors. His teachings also included the traditional Islamic tenets of monotheism, submission to God, and strong family life. The Nation of Islam grew quickly after World War II, and in the early 1960s it achieved national prominence through the work of Malcolm X. Leadership disputes led Malcolm to form a separate organization and finally to his assassination in 1965. In the 1970s Elijah Muhammad was succeeded by his son, Wallace D. Muhammad (b. 1933), who renamed the organization the American Muslim Mission. In 1985 he dissolved the Mission, urging its members to become orthodox Muslims. A splinter group headed by Louis Farrakhan retains the movement's original name and principles. In the early 21st century there were approximately 10,000 members of the Nation of Islam
Five duties incumbent on every Muslim. The first is the profession of faith in the one God and in Muhammad as his Prophet. The others are prayer five times a day, the giving of alms to the poor, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca
First nationalist political party in Indonesia to gain wide popular support. Founded in 1912 to promote the interests of Muslim merchants, it soon began working for the self-government of the Dutch East Indies. Its religious appeal helped it grow rapidly, and by 1916 it claimed 350,000 members. As it became increasingly involved in revolutionary activities, communist elements entered the organization. A struggle for power ensued between religious leaders and communists, which culminated in the party dividing in 1921. Sarekat Islam declined after the departure of its left wing
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