joseph

listen to the pronunciation of joseph
Английский Язык - Турецкий язык
Hazreti Yusuf
on sekizinci yüzyılda kadınların ata binerken giydikleri uzun cüppe
(isim) Yusuf

Yusuf ve arkadaşı çalışacaktı. - Joseph and companion would run.

O Yusuf ve arkadaşı çalışacak. - That Joseph and companion will run.

joseph's-coat
horozibiği
Турецкий язык - Турецкий язык

Определение joseph в Турецкий язык Турецкий язык словарь

joseph conrad
Lord Jim, Nostromo, Zafer gibi romanları dilimize de çevrilen Polonya asıllı ingiliz yazar
Английский Язык - Английский Язык
Joseph of Arimathea; man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus
A male given name, popular as a middle name

I'm going to call him Joseph / or Josephine if it's a girl. / Why? / Because it's a strong name, / Joe, Joseph. / You give a kid a name like Cameron / or Alfred, or something like that, / and they end up wearing glasses / and looking at computers for the rest of their life. / - - - So Joe it is. / He'll turn out strong. Strong and smart.

Eleventh and favorite son of Jacob, by his wife Rachel

Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours.

The husband of Virgin Mary in the New Testament

And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli.

A woman's riding habit worn in the 18th century with a long cape and buttons running down the front
given name, male
{i} Jacob's eleventh son (Biblical); husband of Mary who was the mother of Jesus (Biblical); male first name; family name; rare female name; town in Oregon (USA); town in Utah (USA)
In the New Testament, the husband of Mary, mother of Jesus. in the Old Testament of the Bible, the favourite son of Jacob. Joseph was given a "coat of many colours" by his father, and this made his brothers jealous of him. They sold him as a slave to some Egyptians, but Joseph later became powerful by becoming an adviser to the Egyptian king, and brought his people to live in Egypt. in the New Testament of the Bible, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Joseph was a carpenter in Nazareth. born March 13, 1741, Vienna died Feb. 20, 1790, Vienna Holy Roman emperor (1765-90). He succeeded his father, Francis I, and initially coruled with his mother, Maria Theresa (1765-80). After his mother's death he tried to continue her work of reform. Considered a practicioner of "enlightened despotism," he abolished serfdom, established religious equality before the law, granted freedom of the press, and emancipated the Jews. He came into conflict with the Roman Catholic church by attempting to impose state controls over it, and traditional countries such as the Austrian Netherlands and Hungary resisted his far-reaching reforms. His foreign policies were generally failures; he tried to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria but was stopped by Prussia. An alliance with Catherine II of Russia engaged Austrian troops in a war with Turkey, but Joseph had to return home to head off revolutionary unrest in Hungary and the Austrian Netherlands. In the Old Testament, the son of the patriarch Jacob and his wife, Rachel. He was favoured by his father, and his brothers became bitterly jealous when he was given a resplendent "coat of many colors" (literally, coat with flowing sleeves). They sold him into slavery in Egypt, telling Jacob he had been killed by a wild beast. In Egypt Joseph gained favour with the pharaoh and rose to high office, owing to his ability to interpret dreams, and his acquisition of grain supplies enabled Egypt to withstand a famine. When famine forced Jacob to send his sons to Egypt to buy grain, the family was reconciled with Joseph and settled there. The story of Joseph, told in Genesis 37-50, depicts the preservation of Israel and begins the history of the Israelites in Egypt that is continued in Exodus. Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Abbott Sir John Joseph Caldwell Addison Joseph Akiba ben Joseph Arrow Kenneth Joseph Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Joseph the Levite Belloc Joseph Pierre Hilaire Berrigan Daniel Joseph and Philip Francis Beuys Joseph Blanc Jean Joseph Charles Louis Bonaparte Joseph Bramah Joseph Brant Joseph Brennan William Joseph Jr. Brodsky Joseph Brown Joseph Rogers Butler Joseph Caillaux Joseph Marie Auguste Campbell Joseph Cannon Joseph Gurney Chaikin Joseph Chamberlain Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain Charles Joseph Chamberlain Joseph Chrétien Joseph Jacques Jean Cohn Edwin Joseph Conrad Joseph Cornell Joseph Robert Joseph Cousy Cronin Archibald Joseph Jacques Joseph Ahearn Daley Richard Joseph Joseph de Veuster de Gaulle Charles André Marie Joseph Joseph Paul DiMaggio Dixon Joseph Robert Joseph Dole Drexel Anthony Joseph Dupleix Joseph François Eichendorff Joseph Baron von Joseph Carey Merrick Flaherty Robert Joseph Fouché Joseph duke d'Otrante Fourier Jean Baptiste Joseph Baron Foyt Anthony Joseph Jr. Francis Joseph Gall Franz Joseph Galland Adolf Joseph Ferdinand Gallieni Joseph Simon Galloway Joseph Marie Joseph François Garnier Gay Lussac Joseph Louis Gobineau Joseph Arthur count de Goebbels Paul Joseph Goldberg Arthur Joseph Greenberg Joseph Harold Hanna William Denby and Barbera Joseph Roland Hardee William Joseph Haydn Franz Joseph Heller Joseph Henry Joseph Herriman George Joseph Hooker Joseph Ignarro Louis Joseph Joseph Jefferson Jackson Jackson Michael Joseph Jacquard Joseph Marie Jaurès Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Joachim Joseph Joffre Joseph Jacques Césaire Johnston Joseph Eggleston Joseph Bonaparte Gulf Joseph II Joseph Chief Joseph Father François Joseph le Clerc du Tremblay Joseph Saint Joseph Ben Matthias Karo Joseph ben Ephraim Kasavubu Joseph Joseph Francis Keaton IV Kennedy Joseph Patrick Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kirkland Joseph Lane Lagrange Joseph Louis Laski Harold Joseph Joseph Levitch Licklider Joseph Carl Robnett Lister Joseph Joseph Louis Barrow Maistre Joseph de Mankiewicz Joseph Leo Mansfield Michael Joseph Maximilian Joseph Thomas Joseph Mboya McCarthy Eugene Joseph McCarthy Joseph Raymond McGraw John Joseph Medill Joseph Joseph Désiré Mobutu Montgolfier Joseph Michel and Montgolfier Jacques Étienne Montherlant Henry Marie Joseph Millon de Joseph Leonard Morgan Morny Charles Auguste Louis Joseph duke de Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe William Joseph Mosconi Muller Hermann Joseph Gerald Joseph Mulligan Joseph William Namath Neutra Richard Joseph Niepce Joseph Nicéphore Joseph Oliver Orléans Louis Philippe Joseph duke d' Papineau Louis Joseph Papp Joseph Joseph Papirofsky Pendergast Thomas Joseph Perelman Sidney Joseph Perrot Jules Joseph Pershing John Joseph Plante Joseph Jacques Omer Pleyel Ignace Joseph Priestley Joseph Proudhon Pierre Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Rabéarivelo Jean Joseph Radetzky Joseph Count Rank Joseph Arthur Baron Rank of Sutton Scotney Ravel Joseph Maurice Redouté Pierre Joseph Reger Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Renan Joseph Ernest Richard Joseph Henri Maurice Saadia ben Joseph Antoine Joseph Sax Scaliger Julius Caesar and Scaliger Joseph Justus Schelling Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schumpeter Joseph Alois Sieyès Emmanuel Joseph Simenon Georges Joseph Christian Joseph Roberts Smallwood Smith Joseph Springsteen Bruce Frederick Joseph Stalin Joseph Steffens Joseph Lincoln Stigler George Joseph Stiglitz Joseph E. Stilwell Joseph Warren Story Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Talma François Joseph Taylor Joseph Hooton Jr. Teilhard de Chardin Marie Joseph Pierre Thomson Sir Joseph John Toynbee Arnold Joseph Leonard Joseph Tristano James Joseph Tunney Turner Joseph Mallord William Van Der Zee James Augustus Joseph Vernet Claude Joseph Warren Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Joseph Goreed Lafayette Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier marquis de Montcalm de Saint Véran Louis Joseph de Montcalm Grozon marquis de Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte Slim William Joseph 1st Viscount Slim of Yarralumla and Bishopston
(New Testament) husband of Mary and (in Christian belief) the foster father of Jesus (Old Testament) the 11th son of Jacob and one of the 12 patriarchs of Israel; Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colors, which made his brothers jealous and they sold him into slavery in Egypt leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops (1840-1904) To fit as if by joints; to coalesce as joints do; as, the stones joint, neatly
The earthly father of Jesus
a woman's riding habit, buttoned down the front
One who, or that which, joints
(New Testament) husband of Mary and (in Christian belief) the foster father of Jesus
A narrow piece of scenery used to join together two flats or wings of an interior setting
[Latin] a long cloak worn especially by women in the 18th century
Having joints; articulated; full of nodes; knotty; as, a jointed doll; jointed structure
leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops (1840-1904)
{i} riding coat with a small cape that women wore in the 18th century
A plane for smoothing the surfaces of pieces which are to be accurately joi
(Old Testament) the 11th son of Jacob and one of the 12 patriarchs of Israel; Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colors, which made his brothers jealous and they sold him into slavery in Egypt
npr
Son of Jacob by Rachel; brother of Benjamin; he was sold into slavery by his brothers and became a high official within the Egyptian government; his sons Ephraim and Manasseh became tribes within Israel See Chapter 2
he shall add
An outer garment worn in the 18th century; esp
A place of low resort, as for smoking opium
Joseph was the Father of Jesus and was a carpenter by profession
A projecting or retreating part in something; any irregularity of line or surface, as in a wall
doubt
pioneers
hesitation
fathers
social justice
Joseph -Louis Gay-Lussac
born Dec. 6, 1778, Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, France died May 9, 1850, Paris French chemist and physicist. He showed that all gases expand by the same fraction of their volume for a given temperature increase; this led to the devising of a new temperature scale whose profound thermodynamic significance was later established by Lord Kelvin. Taking measurements from a balloon flying more than 20,000 ft (6,000 m) high, he concluded that Earth's magnetic intensity and atmospheric composition were constant to that altitude. With Alexander von Humboldt, he determined the proportions of hydrogen and oxygen in water. He is remembered as a pioneer investigator of the behaviour of gases and techniques of chemical analysis and a founder of meteorology
Joseph -Marie-Auguste Caillaux
born March 30, 1863, Le Mans, France died Nov. 22, 1944, Mamers French politician. Serving several times as minister of finance, he was an early but unsuccessful advocate of a national income tax. He was named premier in 1911 but was forced to resign after negotiating a controversial treaty with Germany over the second of the Moroccan crises. Later his opposition to World War I and friendship with German agents led to conviction on charges of corresponding with the enemy. Granted amnesty in 1924, he was later elected to the Senate and became head of the Commission of Finance (1927-40)
Joseph A Schumpeter
born Feb. 8, 1883, Triesch, Moravia died Jan. 8, 1950, Taconic, Conn., U.S. Moravian-U.S. economist and sociologist. Educated in Austria, he taught at several European universities before joining the faculty of Harvard University (1932-50). He became known for his theories of capitalist development and the business cycle. His popular book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1942) argued that capitalism would eventually perish of its own success. His posthumous History of Economic Analysis (1954) is an exhaustive study of the development of analytic methods in economics
Joseph Addison
an English writer who wrote articles for The Tatler and The Spectator (1672-1719). born May 1, 1672, Milston, Wiltshire, Eng. died June 17, 1719, London English essayist, poet, and dramatist. His poem on the Battle of Blenheim, The Campaign (1705), brought him to the attention of leading Whigs and paved the way to important government posts (including secretary of state) and literary fame. With Richard Steele, he was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Tatler (1709-11) and The Spectator (1711-12, 1714). One of the most admired masters of English prose, he brought to perfection the periodical essay. His Cato (1713), a highly successful play with political overtones, is one of the important tragedies of the 18th century
Joseph Alois Ratzinger
{i} Pope Benedict XVI (born 1927 in Germany), 265th Pope elected on April 19th 2005
Joseph Alois Schumpeter
born Feb. 8, 1883, Triesch, Moravia died Jan. 8, 1950, Taconic, Conn., U.S. Moravian-U.S. economist and sociologist. Educated in Austria, he taught at several European universities before joining the faculty of Harvard University (1932-50). He became known for his theories of capitalist development and the business cycle. His popular book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1942) argued that capitalism would eventually perish of its own success. His posthumous History of Economic Analysis (1954) is an exhaustive study of the development of analytic methods in economics
Joseph Arthur Baron Rank of Sutton Scotney Rank
born Dec. 22/23, 1888, Hull, Yorkshire, Eng. died March 29, 1972, Winchester, Hampshire British motion-picture distributor and producer. His British National Film Co. made its first commercial picture in 1935. That year he and Charles Woolf established General Film Distributors to distribute Universal Pictures films in Britain. By 1941 Rank controlled two of the three largest movie theatre chains in Britain. The J. Arthur Rank Organisation (incorporated 1946) dominated British film production in the late 1940s and '50s. Rank served as chairman (1946-62) and president (1962-72) of the Rank Organisation, which shifted from filmmaking to hotel ownership and other more profitable enterprises in the late 1960s
Joseph Barbera
{i} (born 1911) American animator and producer who started Hanna-Barbera productions together with William Hanna in 1957
Joseph Baron Fourier
born March 21, 1768, Auxerre, France died May 16, 1830, Paris French mathematician and Egyptologist. While an engineer on Napoleon's Egyptian expedition, he conducted (1798-1801) anthropological investigations and wrote the preface to the monumental Description de l'Égypte, whose publication he oversaw (1809-28). In 1808 he was created a baron by Napoleon. In mathematics he is primarily known for his work in heat conduction (1807-22), for his use of the Fourier series to solve differential equations, and for the related concept of the Fourier transform. As a scientist and humanist, he epitomized the spirit of French intellectualism of the Revolutionary era
Joseph Baron von Eichendorff
born , March 10, 1788, near Ratibor, Prussia died Nov. 26, 1857, Neisse German poet and novelist. Born to the nobility, he and his family lost their castle in the Napoleonic Wars, and he later worked in the Prussian civil service. He became associated with the national leaders of the Romantic movement while studying in Berlin. His most important prose work, Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing (1826), is considered a high point of Romantic fiction. In the 1830s he wrote poetry that achieved the popularity of folk songs and inspired such composers as Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf, and Richard Strauss
Joseph Beuys
born May 12, 1921, Krefeld, Ger. died Jan. 23, 1986, Düsseldorf, W.Ger. German avant-garde sculptor and performance artist. He served in the German air force in World War II and later studied art in Düsseldorf (1947-51); in 1961 he was appointed professor of sculpture at its art academy. In the 1960s he worked with the international group Fluxus, whose emphasis was not on what an artist makes but on his or her personality, actions, and opinions. Beuys's most famous and controversial performance was How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965), in which he walked around an art gallery with his face covered in honey and gold leaf, talking to a dead hare about human and animal consciousness. He also became known for sculptural works that utilized fat and layers of felt. He succeeded in creating a popular personal mythology and was one of the most influential artists and teachers of the later 20th century
Joseph Bonaparte
born Jan. 7, 1768, Corte, Corsica died July 28, 1844, Florence, Tuscany, Italy French lawyer, diplomat, and soldier. Elder brother of Napoleon, he served during Napoleon's reign as king of Naples (1806-08), where he abolished feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, and reorganized the judicial, financial, and educational systems. He was named king of Spain in 1808, but his attempts at reform there were less successful. In 1813 he abdicated and returned to France. After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, Joseph lived in the U.S. (1815-32) and later settled in Italy
Joseph Bonaparte Gulf
Inlet of the Timor Sea, northern Australia. It spans 225 mi (360 km) east to west, and it indents the Australian coast for 100 mi (160 km). Entered by a Dutch navigator in 1644, it was visited in 1803 by Nicolas Baudin, a Frenchman who named it after Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bramah
born April 13, 1748, Stainborough, Yorkshire, Eng. died Dec. 9, 1814, London British engineer and inventor. Originally a cabinetmaker, Bramah in 1784 devised a pick-proof lock, which defied all efforts for 67 years. Since the success of his locks depended on their complexity, they could be produced in quantity only after the creation of a set of well-designed and precisely engineered machine tools, for which he hired a brilliant young blacksmith, Henry Maudslay. Their prototype machines were essential to the founding of the machine-tool industry. Bramah's hydraulic press found many industrial uses and led to the development of hydraulic machinery
Joseph Brant
born 1742, banks of the Ohio River died Nov. 24, 1807, near Brantford, Ont., Can. Mohawk Indian chief and Christian missionary. Brant was converted to the Anglican church while attending a school for Indians in Connecticut. He fought for the British in the last French and Indian War (1754-63). He led four of the six Iroquois nations on the British side in the American Revolution, winning several notable battles. After the war Brant was granted land along the Grand River in Ontario, Can., where he ruled peacefully and continued his missionary work
Joseph Brodsky
orig. Iosip Aleksandrovich Brodsky born May 24, 1940, Leningrad, Russia, U.S.S.R. died Jan. 28, 1996, New York, N.Y., U.S. Russian-born U.S. poet. In the Soviet Union his independent spirit and irregular work record led to a five-year sentence to hard labour. Exiled in 1972, he settled in New York. He was poet laureate of the U.S. from 1991 to 1992. His lyric and elegiac poems ponder the universal concerns of life, death, and the meaning of existence. Brodsky's poetry collections include A Part of Speech (1980), History of the Twentieth Century (1986), and To Urania (1988). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987
Joseph Butler
born May 18, 1692, Wantage, Berkshire, Eng. died June 16, 1752, Bath, Somerset British bishop and moral philosopher. He became dean of St. Paul's Cathedral in 1740 and bishop of Durham in 1750. His works defended revealed religion against the rationalist thinkers of his time. His The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature (1736) attacked the doctrine of Deism, according to which knowledge of God is acquired through reason rather than revelation. His Of the Nature of Virtue, appended to the Analogy, presented a refutation of hedonism and of the notion that self-interest is the ultimate principle of good conduct
Joseph Caillaux
born March 30, 1863, Le Mans, France died Nov. 22, 1944, Mamers French politician. Serving several times as minister of finance, he was an early but unsuccessful advocate of a national income tax. He was named premier in 1911 but was forced to resign after negotiating a controversial treaty with Germany over the second of the Moroccan crises. Later his opposition to World War I and friendship with German agents led to conviction on charges of corresponding with the enemy. Granted amnesty in 1924, he was later elected to the Senate and became head of the Commission of Finance (1927-40)
Joseph Campbell
born March 26, 1904, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Oct. 31, 1987, Honolulu, Hawaii U.S. author of works on comparative mythology. He studied English literature and taught at Sarah Lawrence College. He explored the common functions of myths in human cultures, examining mythic archetypes in folklore and literature from around the world. His views, strongly influenced by Carl Gustav Jung, were popularized through a public-television series in the 1980s. His books include The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) and The Masks of God (4 vol., 1959-67)
Joseph Cannon
born May 7, 1836, Guilford county, N.C., U.S. died Nov. 12, 1926, Danville, Ill. U.S. politician. He began practicing law in Illinois in 1859. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1872, he served 46 years (1873-91, 1893-1913, 1915-23). A staunchly conservative Republican, he used his power as speaker (1903-11) in a partisan manner. In 1910 a coalition of Democrats and insurgent Republicans passed a resolution that made the speaker ineligible for membership on the rules committee, the main source of his power. Personally well liked, he was popularly known as "Uncle Joe
Joseph Carey Merrick
orig. Joseph (Carey) Merrick born Aug. 5, 1862, Leicester, Leicestershire, Eng. died April 11, 1890, London Englishman disfigured by a disease that caused growths over his skin and bone surfaces. His head was 3 ft (.9 m) around, with large bags of skin hanging from it, the jaw so deformed he could not speak clearly. One arm ended in a 12-in. (.3-m) wrist and a finlike hand. His legs were similarly deformed, and a defective hip made him lame. He escaped from a workhouse at 21 to join a freak show, where a London physician, Frederick Treves, discovered him and admitted him to London Hospital. He died in his sleep at 27 of accidental suffocation. His disease was probably the very rare Proteus syndrome. A successful play and film were based on Merrick's life
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider
born March 11, 1915, St. Louis, Mo., U.S. died June 26, 1990, Arlington, Mass. U.S. scientist. He studied math and physics and received a doctorate in psychology from the University of Rochester (N.Y.). He lectured at Harvard University before joining the faculty at MIT (1949-57, 1966-85). As a group leader at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the 1960s, he encouraged research into time-sharing and helped lay the groundwork for computer networking and ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet. He is known for his extensive work on human-computer interaction and interfaces. His influence led to the first American advanced-degree programs in computer science
Joseph Chaikin
born Sept. 16, 1935, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S. U.S. stage director, actor, and writer. He was a member of the Living Theatre before founding the Open Theatre (1963), which became an influential force in experimental theatre. His celebrated productions, the results of intense collaboration between writer, director, and actors, included America Hurrah (1966), The Serpent (1969), Terminal (1970), The Mutation Show (1971), and Nightwalk (1973). He published his ideas about theatre in The Presence of the Actor (1972). He later collaborated with Sam Shepard on a number of plays, including The War in Heaven (1984) and When the World Was Green (1996). In 1977 he received the first lifetime-achievement Obie Award
Joseph Chamberlain
born July 8, 1836, London, Eng. died July 2, 1914, London British politician and reformer. Early success in business enabled him to retire at age 38 with a substantial fortune. He was elected to Parliament (1876-1906), where he became a leader of the left wing of the Liberal Party. In 1886, in opposition to Irish Home Rule, he joined other dissident Liberals (Liberal Unionists) to defeat the Liberal government. He used his control of the Liberal Unionists to pressure the subsequent Conservative government to adopt a more progressive social policy. As colonial secretary (1895-1903), he advocated tax reform and a federated empire of self-governing colonies, helping pass the Commonwealth of Australia bill (1900). He resigned when his proposals for a tariff giving preference to imperial products were rebuffed by the government
Joseph Conrad
He managed to join the French merchant marine and in 1878 the British merchant navy, where he pursued a career for most of the next 15 years; his naval experiences would provide the material for most of his novels. Though he knew little English before he was 20, he became one of the master English stylists. He is noted for tales in rich prose of dangerous life at sea and in exotic places, settings he used to reveal his real concern, his deeply pessimistic vision of the human struggle. Of his many novels, which include Almayer's Folly (1895), The Nigger of the "Narcissus" (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), several are regarded as masterpieces. He also published seven story collections; the novella "Heart of Darkness" (1902) is his most famous shorter work and the basis for Francis Ford Coppola's film Apocalypse Now (1979). Conrad's influence on later novelists has been profound
Joseph Conrad
{i} (1857-1924) Polish-born English novelist, author of "Lord Jim" and "Heart of Darkness
Joseph Conrad
a British writer, born in Poland, who is one of the greatest writers of the early 20th century. His novels are often about the sea and about colonialism and the moral problems it involves. His best-known novels include Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, and The Secret Agent (1857-1924). orig. Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski born Dec. 3, 1857, Berdichev, Ukraine, Russian Empire died Aug. 3, 1924, Canterbury, Kent, Eng. Polish-British novelist and short-story writer. His father was a Polish patriot who was exiled to northern Russia, and Conrad was an orphan by age
Joseph Cornell
(1903-1972) U.S. artist who primarily created shadow boxes using fragments of precious items
Joseph Cornell
born Dec. 24, 1903, Nyack, N.Y., U.S. died Dec. 29, 1972, New York, N.Y. U.S. assemblage artist. He had no formal artistic training. In the 1930s and '40s he was associated with the Surrealists in New York City (see Surrealism). He was an originator of the assemblage; his most distinctive works were "boxes," usually with glass fronts, containing objects and pieces of collage arranged in elegant but enigmatic compositions. Recurrent motifs include astronomy, music, birds, seashells, glamour photographs, and souvenirs of travel. His appeal rested on the Surrealist technique of irrational juxtaposition and on nostalgia
Joseph Count Radetzky
born Nov. 2, 1766, Trebnice, Bohemia died Jan. 5, 1858, Milan Austrian army officer. He fought with distinction against the French in the Napoleonic Wars. As army chief of staff, he attempted to modernize the Austrian army. As commander in chief of the Austrian army in northern Italy (1831-57), he suppressed the revolt in the Austrian-ruled provinces of Lombardy and Venetia in 1848. He served as governor-general of these provinces (1849-57). His status among conservatives as a national hero inspired Johann Strauss the Elder to compose the Radetzky March
Joseph Dixon
born Jan. 18, 1799, Marblehead, Mass., U.S. died June 15, 1869, Jersey City, N.J. U.S. inventor and manufacturer. Largely self-taught, Dixon began his pioneering industrial use of graphite in 1827 with the manufacture of lead pencils, stove polish, and lubricants. He discovered that graphite crucibles withstood high temperatures, and he secured patents on graphite crucibles for making steel and pottery. He established a crucible steelworks in Jersey City in 1850. He also experimented with photography and photolithography and devised a technique for printing banknotes in colour to prevent counterfeiting
Joseph E Johnston
born Feb. 3, 1807, near Farmville, Va., U.S. died March 21, 1891, Washington, D.C. U.S. Army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War he resigned his commission to serve the Confederacy. Appointed brigadier general, he won the first Confederate victory at the Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to general but remained at odds with Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis. He defended Richmond in the Peninsular Campaign and was badly wounded at the Battle of Fair Oaks (1862). In 1863 he was sent to conduct the Vicksburg Campaign. His order to evacuate the city was countermanded by Davis, but Johnston was blamed for the city's fall. As commander of the Army of the Tennessee, he avoided defeat as the Union advanced toward Atlanta, Ga., but he was removed from command for failing to defeat the invaders. Restored to duty in 1865, he was forced to surrender to William T. Sherman
Joseph E. Stiglitz
born Feb. 9, 1943, Gary, Ind., U.S. U.S. economist. He received a Ph.D. (1967) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and taught at several universities, including Yale, Harvard, Stanford, and Columbia. From 1997 to 2000 he was the World Bank's chief economist but often disagreed with the organization's policies. Stiglitz helped found modern development economics, and he changed how economists think about the way markets work. His studies on asymmetric information in the marketplace showed that the poorly informed can obtain information from the better informed through a screening process, for example, when insurance companies determine the risk factors of their clients. He shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences with George A. Akerlof and A. Michael Spence
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
born Feb. 3, 1807, near Farmville, Va., U.S. died March 21, 1891, Washington, D.C. U.S. Army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War he resigned his commission to serve the Confederacy. Appointed brigadier general, he won the first Confederate victory at the Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to general but remained at odds with Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis. He defended Richmond in the Peninsular Campaign and was badly wounded at the Battle of Fair Oaks (1862). In 1863 he was sent to conduct the Vicksburg Campaign. His order to evacuate the city was countermanded by Davis, but Johnston was blamed for the city's fall. As commander of the Army of the Tennessee, he avoided defeat as the Union advanced toward Atlanta, Ga., but he was removed from command for failing to defeat the invaders. Restored to duty in 1865, he was forced to surrender to William T. Sherman
Joseph Estrada
(born 1937 as Joseph Marcelo Ejercito), former Philippine president from 1998 to January 2001 famously known as "Erap
Joseph Galloway
born 1731, West River, Md. died Aug. 29, 1803, Watford, Hertfordshire, Eng. American colonial lawyer and legislator. Entering law practice in Philadelphia in 1747, Galloway won a reputation by pleading cases before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania before he was
Joseph Galloway
He was elected to the colonial legislature in 1756 and served as speaker from 1766 to 1775. A loyalist, he opposed the independence of the colonies; his plan for a peaceful resolution of the conflict with Britain was narrowly rejected by the Continental Congress. During the American Revolution Galloway joined the British army under William Howe, becoming a civil administrator of Philadelphia during the British occupation of the city. When the Continental Army reentered Philadelphia in 1778, he fled to England
Joseph Gay-Lussac
born Dec. 6, 1778, Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, France died May 9, 1850, Paris French chemist and physicist. He showed that all gases expand by the same fraction of their volume for a given temperature increase; this led to the devising of a new temperature scale whose profound thermodynamic significance was later established by Lord Kelvin. Taking measurements from a balloon flying more than 20,000 ft (6,000 m) high, he concluded that Earth's magnetic intensity and atmospheric composition were constant to that altitude. With Alexander von Humboldt, he determined the proportions of hydrogen and oxygen in water. He is remembered as a pioneer investigator of the behaviour of gases and techniques of chemical analysis and a founder of meteorology
Joseph Goebbels
born Oct. 29, 1897, Rheydt, Ger. died May 1, 1945, Berlin German Nazi leader. After earning a doctorate from Heidelberg University, he joined the Nazi Party and was appointed district leader in Berlin by Adolf Hitler in 1926. A gifted speaker, Goebbels also edited the party's journal and began to create the Führer myth around Hitler, instituting the party demonstrations that helped convert the masses to Nazism. After Hitler seized power in 1933, Goebbels took control of the national propaganda machinery. During World War II he carried on a personal propaganda blitz to raise hopes on the home front. Named chancellor in Hitler's will, he remained with Hitler to the end. One day after Hitler's suicide, Goebbels and his wife killed themselves and their six children
Joseph Goebbels
{i} Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), minister of propaganda for the German Nazi party who persecuted Jewish people
Joseph Gurney Cannon
born May 7, 1836, Guilford county, N.C., U.S. died Nov. 12, 1926, Danville, Ill. U.S. politician. He began practicing law in Illinois in 1859. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1872, he served 46 years (1873-91, 1893-1913, 1915-23). A staunchly conservative Republican, he used his power as speaker (1903-11) in a partisan manner. In 1910 a coalition of Democrats and insurgent Republicans passed a resolution that made the speaker ineligible for membership on the rules committee, the main source of his power. Personally well liked, he was popularly known as "Uncle Joe
Joseph H Greenberg
born May 28, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S. died May 7, 2001, Stanford, Calif. U.S. anthropologist and linguist. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He eschewed more orthodox methods of historical linguistics for the approach he termed "mass" or "multilateral" comparison, which involved looking for phonetic resemblances among words in many languages simultaneously. His 1963 classification of African languages into four families (Afroasiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan) was widely accepted. However, his 1987 classification of all American Indian languages into just two families, Amerind and Na-Dene (see Athabaskan languages) provoked a rancorous denunciation by specialists, who faulted both his data and his method
Joseph H Jr. Taylor
born March 24, 1941, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. U.S. physicist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. While teaching at the University of Massachusetts (1968-81), he and Russell Alan Hulse discovered the first binary pulsar (1974). Their discovery provided evidence in support of Albert Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, which predicts that objects accelerated in a strong gravitational field will emit gravitational waves. With its enormous interacting gravitational fields, the binary pulsar should emit such waves, draining energy and reducing the orbital distance between the two stars. In 1978 they showed, on the basis of tiny variations in the pulsar's radio emission, that the two stars are revolving ever faster and closer around each other at a rate agreeing precisely with Einstein's prediction. Their discoveries won the two men a 1993 Nobel Prize
Joseph Harold Greenberg
born May 28, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S. died May 7, 2001, Stanford, Calif. U.S. anthropologist and linguist. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He eschewed more orthodox methods of historical linguistics for the approach he termed "mass" or "multilateral" comparison, which involved looking for phonetic resemblances among words in many languages simultaneously. His 1963 classification of African languages into four families (Afroasiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan) was widely accepted. However, his 1987 classification of all American Indian languages into just two families, Amerind and Na-Dene (see Athabaskan languages) provoked a rancorous denunciation by specialists, who faulted both his data and his method
Joseph Haydn
an Austrian composer who wrote over 100 symphonies and the oratorio The Creation (1732-1809). born March 31, 1732, Rohrau, Austria died May 31, 1809, Vienna Austrian composer. Intended for the priesthood, he was recruited at age eight to the choir at St. Stephen's Church, Vienna, where he learned violin and keyboard. On leaving the choir, he began supporting himself by teaching and playing violin, while undertaking rigorous study of counterpoint and harmony. He came to the attention of Pietro Metastasio and through him became factotum to the composer Nicola Porpora in exchange for lessons. Gaining entrée to high society, in 1761 he became head of the musical establishment at the great palace of the Esterházy family, which would support him for most of his career. In this position of artistic isolation but with excellent resources, Haydn felt free to experiment and was forced to become original. By his late years he was recognized internationally as the greatest living composer. He composed important works in almost every genre, and his elegant and ingratiating works balance wit and seriousness, custom and innovation. The first great symphonist, he composed 108 symphonies, including the popular last 12 "London symphonies" (1791-95). He virtually invented the string quartet, and his 68 quartets remain the foundation of the quartet literature. His choral works include 15 masses and the oratorios The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801). He also wrote 48 piano sonatas and more than 100 beautiful works for the cello-like baryton. The principal shaper of the Classical style, he exerted major influence on his friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and on his student Ludwig van Beethoven
Joseph Heller
{i} (1923-1999) surreal novelist who wrote "Catch-22" (1961)
Joseph Heller
born May 1, 1923, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S. died Dec. 12, 1999, East Hampton, N.Y. U.S. writer. Heller flew 60 combat missions as a bombardier in World War II before finishing his studies at Columbia and Oxford and working as an advertising copywriter. His satirical novel Catch-22 (1961), based on his wartime experiences, was one of the most significant works of postwar protest literature and a huge critical and popular success. His later novels include Something Happened (1974), Good as Gold (1979), God Knows (1984), and Closing Time (1994)
Joseph Henri Maurice Richard
born Aug. 4, 1921, Montreal, Que., Can. died May 27, 2000, Montreal Canadian ice-hockey player. He played right wing for the Montreal Canadiens (1942-60) and became the first National Hockey League player to score 50 goals in a regular (50-game) season (1943-44). His nickname, "Rocket," reflected his speed and aggressive play. He was also noted for his clutch scoring and fiery temper
Joseph Henry
born Dec. 17, 1797, Albany, N.Y., U.S. died May 13, 1878, Washington, D.C. U.S. physicist. He aided Samuel F.B. Morse in developing the telegraph. He discovered several important principles of electricity, including self-induction. He observed electromagnetic induction a year before Michael Faraday announced its discovery. He made improvements to electromagnets, discovered the laws on which the transformer is based, investigated electric discharge, and demonstrated that sunspots radiate less heat than the general solar surface. In 1846 he became the first secretary and director of the Smithsonian Institution, where he organized a corps of volunteer weather observers that led to creation of the U.S. Weather Bureau. He was a chief technical adviser to Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and a primary organizer of the National Academy of Science. In 1893 the standard unit of electrical inductance, the henry, was named in his honour
Joseph Hooker
born Nov. 13, 1814, Hadley, Mass., U.S. died Oct. 31, 1879, Garden City, N.Y. U.S. Army officer. He attended West Point and served in the Mexican War. Appointed brigadier general of volunteers at the outbreak of the American Civil War, he participated in major campaigns and became known as "Fighting Joe." He succeeded Ambrose E. Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg. He reorganized the army but failed to defeat Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville, incurring heavy Union casualties. He resigned just before the Battle of Gettysburg but later helped secure the Union victory at the Battle of Chattanooga
Joseph Hooton Jr. Taylor
born March 24, 1941, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. U.S. physicist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. While teaching at the University of Massachusetts (1968-81), he and Russell Alan Hulse discovered the first binary pulsar (1974). Their discovery provided evidence in support of Albert Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, which predicts that objects accelerated in a strong gravitational field will emit gravitational waves. With its enormous interacting gravitational fields, the binary pulsar should emit such waves, draining energy and reducing the orbital distance between the two stars. In 1978 they showed, on the basis of tiny variations in the pulsar's radio emission, that the two stars are revolving ever faster and closer around each other at a rate agreeing precisely with Einstein's prediction. Their discoveries won the two men a 1993 Nobel Prize
Joseph II
Holy Roman emperor (1765-1790) and king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780-1790). He instituted a number of social reforms aimed at curbing hereditary privileges
Joseph Jacobs
{i} (1854-1916) Jewish historian and folklorist, editor of an edition of "The Jewish Encyclopedia" and a collection of Aesop's fables
Joseph Jacques Omer Plante
born Jan. 17, 1929, Shawinigan Falls, Que., Can. died Feb. 26, 1986, Geneva, Switz. Canadian ice-hockey player. A goalie, he recorded a shutout in his first NHL game. He was an integral member of the powerful Montreal Canadiens team that won a record five successive Stanley Cups (1956-60). He was the first goalie to wear a protective face mask (1959). Honoured throughout his 18-year NHL career, he was one of the most successful of all NHL goaltenders
Joseph Joachim
born June 28, 1831, Kittsee, near Pressburg, Austria-Hungary died Aug. 15, 1907, Berlin, German Empire Austro-Hungarian violinist. A prodigy, he began study as a child in Pest, continuing later in Vienna and Leipzig, where he was associated with Felix Mendelssohn. He was concertmaster at Weimar under Franz Liszt (1850-52), but their tastes in music diverged radically. He became close to Johannes Brahms, who sought Joachim's advice about his violin concerto. Joachim wrote cadenzas that are still used for a number of concertos. As the longtime head of Berlin's Hochschule (1868-1905), he developed it into a first-rank conservatory
Joseph Joachim
{i} (1831-1907) Hungarian composer and violinist
Joseph Joffre
born Jan. 12, 1852, Rivesaltes, France died Jan. 3, 1931, Paris French commander in chief on the Western Front in World War I. He was responsible for the calamitous campaign with which the French army began operations in 1914 against Germany, but he shifted his forces and created a new French army under his direct command that won a great victory in the First Battle of the Marne (1914). As commander in chief (1915-16), he ordered the French armies to burst through the German positions, at ruinous cost. His prestige waned, and, because of the lack of French preparation for the Battle of Verdun (1916), he was stripped of his direct command and resigned. He was created a marshal of France in 1916
Joseph Kasavubu
born 1910?, Tshela, Belgian Congo died March 24, 1969, Boma First president (1960-65) of independent Congo (Kinshasa). He held a variety of administrative posts before agreeing to serve as president in Patrice Lumumba's government. When Katanga province under Moise Tshombe seceded a few days after independence, Kasavubu threw his support to Tshombe and, together with Col. J. Mobutu (see Mobutu Sese Seko), ousted Lumumba. Four years later a split between Kasavubu and Tshombe enabled Mobutu to seize control
Joseph Kennedy
{i} Joseph "Joe" Patrick Kennedy, Sr. (1888-1969), American businessman and diplomat, father of President John F. Kennedy and the head of the Kennedy political family
Joseph L Mankiewicz
born Feb. 11, 1909, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., U.S. died Feb. 5, 1993, Mount Kisco, N.Y. U.S. film director, producer, and screenwriter. He wrote scripts for Paramount from 1929 and later produced movies such as The Philadelphia Story (1940) and Woman of the Year (1942). Known for his witty, urbane dialogue and memorable characters, he wrote and directed films such as A Letter to Three Wives (1949, Academy Awards for best director and screenplay), All About Eve (1950, Academy Awards for best picture, director, and screenplay), and The Barefoot Contessa (1954), and directed Julius Caesar (1953), Suddenly Last Summer (1959), and the disastrously expensive Cleopatra (1963). His older brother, Herman (1897-1953), was a screenwriter and a famous wit, best remembered as the principal author of Citizen Kane (1941, Academy Award)
Joseph Lane Kirkland
born March 12, 1922, Camden, S.C., U.S. died Aug. 14, 1999, Washington, D.C. U.S. labour-union leader. He served as an officer in the U.S. merchant marine and joined the American Federation of Labor (AFL) as a staff researcher in 1948. He was elected secretary-treasurer of the AFL-CIO in 1969 and succeeded George Meany as president in 1979. During Kirkland's tenure (1979-95), the AFL-CIO's membership and political influence waned due to shrinking employment in the U.S. manufacturing sector
Joseph Leo Mankiewicz
born Feb. 11, 1909, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., U.S. died Feb. 5, 1993, Mount Kisco, N.Y. U.S. film director, producer, and screenwriter. He wrote scripts for Paramount from 1929 and later produced movies such as The Philadelphia Story (1940) and Woman of the Year (1942). Known for his witty, urbane dialogue and memorable characters, he wrote and directed films such as A Letter to Three Wives (1949, Academy Awards for best director and screenplay), All About Eve (1950, Academy Awards for best picture, director, and screenplay), and The Barefoot Contessa (1954), and directed Julius Caesar (1953), Suddenly Last Summer (1959), and the disastrously expensive Cleopatra (1963). His older brother, Herman (1897-1953), was a screenwriter and a famous wit, best remembered as the principal author of Citizen Kane (1941, Academy Award)
Joseph Lincoln Steffens
born April 6, 1866, San Francisco, Calif., U.S. died Aug. 9, 1936, Carmel, Calif. U.S. journalist and reformer. He worked for New York City newspapers (1892-1901) and was managing editor of McClure's Magazine (1901-06), where he began his famous muckraking articles later published as The Shame of the Cities (1904) exposing corruption in politics and big business. He lectured widely and aroused public interest in seeking solutions and taking action. He later supported revolutionary activities in Mexico and Russia and lived in Europe (1917-27). The success of his Autobiography (1931) returned him to the lecture circuit
Joseph Lister
a British surgeon (=a doctor who does operations on the body) who was the first person to use antiseptics (=chemicals that prevent wounds from becoming infected) during operations (1827-1912). later Baron Lister (of Lyme Regis) born April 5, 1827, Upton, Essex, Eng. died Feb. 10, 1912, Walmer, Kent British surgeon and medical scientist. He received a medical degree from Oxford in 1852 and became an assistant to James Syme, the greatest surgical teacher of the day. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon to the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, where he observed that 45-50% of amputation patients died from sepsis (infection). Initially he theorized that airborne dust might cause sepsis, but in 1865 he learned of Louis Pasteur's theory that microorganisms cause infection. Using phenol as an antiseptic, Lister reduced mortality in his ward to 15% within four years. Most surgeons were unconvinced until a widely publicized operation under antiseptic conditions was successful. By the time of his retirement in 1893, he had seen his principle accepted almost universally. He is regarded as the founder of antiseptic medicine
Joseph Lister
{i} Baron Lister (1827-1912), English surgeon and medical scientist who showed (in 1865) that carbolic acid was an efficient antiseptic and antibacterial substance
Joseph Mallord William Turner
born April 23, 1775, London, Eng. died Dec. 19, 1851, London British landscape painter. The son of a barber, he entered the Royal Academy school in 1789. In 1802 he became a full academician and in 1807 was appointed professor of perspective. His early work was concerned with accurate depictions of places, but he soon learned from Richard Wilson to take a more poetic and imaginative approach. The Shipwreck (1805) shows his new emphasis on luminosity, atmosphere, and Romantic, dramatic subjects. After a trip to Italy in 1819, his colour became purer and more prismatic, with a general heightening of key. In later paintings, such as Sunrise, with a Boat Between Headlands (1845), architectural and natural details are sacrificed to effects of colour and light, with only the barest indication of mass. His compositions became more fluid, suggesting movement and space. In breaking down conventional formulas of representation, he anticipated French Impressionism. His immense reputation in the 19th century was due largely to John Ruskin's enthusiasm for his early works; 20th-century critics celebrated the abstract qualities of his late colour compositions
Joseph McCarthy
a US politician in the Republican Party. He became famous in the early 1950s by saying publically that many famous people, important politicians, and military officers were communists, and therefore enemies of the US. He influenced the development of strongly anti-Communist ideas in the US, and anyone who was called a Communist was treated extremely unfairly. In 1954, however, the US Senate formally criticized his actions, and he lost most of his political support and power (1909-57)
Joseph Medill
born April 6, 1823, near Saint John, N.B., Can. died March 16, 1899, San Antonio, Texas, U.S. Canadian-born U.S. editor and publisher. Born into a family of shipbuilders, he studied law in the U.S. and was admitted to the bar in 1846. He turned to newspaper publishing in 1849. As managing editor of the Chicago Tribune (from 1855), he set its antislavery editorial policy. He helped found the Republican Party (1854) and worked for Abraham Lincoln's nomination. As mayor of Chicago (1871-74), he helped establish the Chicago Public Library (1872-74). In 1874 he resigned as mayor and acquired a controlling share in the Chicago Tribune. Four of his grandchildren, including Robert McCormick, also ran newspapers
Joseph Merrick
orig. Joseph (Carey) Merrick born Aug. 5, 1862, Leicester, Leicestershire, Eng. died April 11, 1890, London Englishman disfigured by a disease that caused growths over his skin and bone surfaces. His head was 3 ft (.9 m) around, with large bags of skin hanging from it, the jaw so deformed he could not speak clearly. One arm ended in a 12-in. (.3-m) wrist and a finlike hand. His legs were similarly deformed, and a defective hip made him lame. He escaped from a workhouse at 21 to join a freak show, where a London physician, Frederick Treves, discovered him and admitted him to London Hospital. He died in his sleep at 27 of accidental suffocation. His disease was probably the very rare Proteus syndrome. A successful play and film were based on Merrick's life
Joseph Michel Montgolfier
{i} (1740-1810) French aeronautic inventor who (together with his brother Jacques Etienne) invented the first practical hot-air balloon
Joseph P Kennedy
He became a shipbuilder, a motion-picture tycoon, and a large contributor to the Democratic Party. During the 1920s he acquired a large fortune by speculating in the stock market; he is also alleged to have traded in bootleg liquor during Prohibition. Later, as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (1934-35), he outlawed the speculative practices, including insider trading and stock manipulation, that had made him rich. He was the first Irish American to serve as ambassador to Britain (1937-40). With his wife, Rose, he encouraged academic and athletic competitiveness in his children and expected the boys in the family including John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Edward Kennedy to pursue careers in public service. His role in John Kennedy's narrow victory over Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election has long been the subject of controversy
Joseph P Kennedy
born Sept. 6, 1888, Boston, Mass., U.S. died Nov. 18, 1969, Hyannis Port, Mass. U.S. businessman and financier. He graduated from Harvard University in 1912. He was a bank president by age 25 and a millionaire at age
Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
{i} Joseph Kennedy, Joseph "Joe" Patrick Kennedy, Sr. (1888-1969), American businessman and diplomat, father of President John F. Kennedy and the head of the Kennedy political family
Joseph Papp
orig. Joseph Papirofsky born June 22, 1921, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S. died Oct. 31, 1991, New York, N.Y. U.S. theatrical producer and director. He studied acting and directing and worked as a stage manager for CBS television. In 1954 he founded the New York Shakespeare Festival, which gave free performances of Shakespeare's plays in city parks. He produced and directed most of the plays; in 1962 the Delacorte Theatre in Central Park was built as the company's permanent home. In 1967 he founded the New York Shakespeare Festival Public Theatre, which concentrated on contemporary and experimental dramas. Several productions traveled to Broadway, including Hair (1967) and A Chorus Line (1975). Papp remained one of Off-Broadway's most active producers into the 1980s. He served as artistic director of the Shakespeare Festival and the Public Theatre until his death
Joseph Patrick Kennedy
He became a shipbuilder, a motion-picture tycoon, and a large contributor to the Democratic Party. During the 1920s he acquired a large fortune by speculating in the stock market; he is also alleged to have traded in bootleg liquor during Prohibition. Later, as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (1934-35), he outlawed the speculative practices, including insider trading and stock manipulation, that had made him rich. He was the first Irish American to serve as ambassador to Britain (1937-40). With his wife, Rose, he encouraged academic and athletic competitiveness in his children and expected the boys in the family including John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Edward Kennedy to pursue careers in public service. His role in John Kennedy's narrow victory over Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election has long been the subject of controversy
Joseph Patrick Kennedy
born Sept. 6, 1888, Boston, Mass., U.S. died Nov. 18, 1969, Hyannis Port, Mass. U.S. businessman and financier. He graduated from Harvard University in 1912. He was a bank president by age 25 and a millionaire at age
Joseph Pilates
{i} (1880-1967) German born U.S. dancer who created the Pilates method
Joseph Priestley
born March 13, 1733, Birstall Fieldhead, near Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng. died Feb. 6, 1804, Northumberland, Pa., U.S. English theologian, political theorist, and physical scientist. He worked as a teacher and lecturer in various subjects before joining the ministry in 1767. His early scientific studies resulted in his History and Present State of Electricity (1767), which became a fundamental text in the field. His Essay on Government (1768) influenced later utilitarianism. He did important work in the field of chemical reactions and change. He is considered the discoverer of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and several other gases, and in 1774 he became the first to identify oxygen; his report led Antoine Lavoisier to repeat the experiment, deduce oxygen's nature and role, and name it. His theological works include History of the Corruptions of the Christian Church (1782), burned as sacrilegious in 1785, and A General History of the Christian Church, 6 vol. (1790-1802). His nonconformist religious views and his political activities, particularly in support of the French Revolution, made him increasingly controversial in England, and he immigrated to the U.S. in 1794
Joseph Pulitzer
born April 10, 1847, Makó, Hung. died Oct. 29, 1911, Charleston, S.C., U.S. Hungarian-born U.S. newspaper editor and publisher. He immigrated to the U.S. in 1864 to serve in the American Civil War. After the war he became a reporter and then proprietor at German-language newspapers in St. Louis and entered Missouri politics. In 1878 he merged the St. Louis Dispatch (founded 1864) and the Post (founded 1875) into the Post-Dispatch, which soon became the city's dominant evening newspaper. Shifting his interests to New York City, he purchased the World (1883) and founded the Evening World (1887). He helped establish the pattern of the modern newspaper by combining exposés of political corruption and crusading investigative reporting with publicity stunts, self-advertising, and sensationalism. In his will he endowed the Columbia University School of Journalism and established the Pulitzer Prizes
Joseph R McCarthy
born Nov. 14, 1908, near Appleton, Wis., U.S. died May 2, 1957, Bethesda, Md. U.S. politician. He was a Wisconsin circuit judge (1940-42) before enlisting in the Marine Corps in World War II. In 1946 he upset Robert La Follette, Jr., to win election to the U.S. Senate. He remained little known until 1950, when he publicly charged that 205 communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department. Reelected in 1952, he obtained the chairmanship of the Senate's permanent subcommittee on investigations, and for the next two years he investigated various government departments and questioned innumerable witnesses about their suspected communist affiliations. To his supporters, McCarthy was a dedicated patriot and a guardian of genuine Americanism; to his detractors, he was an irresponsible witch-hunter who was undermining the nation's traditions of civil liberties. The persecution of innocent persons on the charge of being communists and the forced conformity that this practice engendered in American public life came to be known as McCarthyism. His influence waned after 1954, when exposure of his truculent interrogative tactics in nationally televised hearings helped to turn public opinion against him. Later that year he was censured by the Senate for conduct "contrary to Senate traditions
Joseph Raymond McCarthy
born Nov. 14, 1908, near Appleton, Wis., U.S. died May 2, 1957, Bethesda, Md. U.S. politician. He was a Wisconsin circuit judge (1940-42) before enlisting in the Marine Corps in World War II. In 1946 he upset Robert La Follette, Jr., to win election to the U.S. Senate. He remained little known until 1950, when he publicly charged that 205 communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department. Reelected in 1952, he obtained the chairmanship of the Senate's permanent subcommittee on investigations, and for the next two years he investigated various government departments and questioned innumerable witnesses about their suspected communist affiliations. To his supporters, McCarthy was a dedicated patriot and a guardian of genuine Americanism; to his detractors, he was an irresponsible witch-hunter who was undermining the nation's traditions of civil liberties. The persecution of innocent persons on the charge of being communists and the forced conformity that this practice engendered in American public life came to be known as McCarthyism. His influence waned after 1954, when exposure of his truculent interrogative tactics in nationally televised hearings helped to turn public opinion against him. Later that year he was censured by the Senate for conduct "contrary to Senate traditions
Joseph Ritter von Hasner
{i} (1819-1892) Czechoslovakian ophthalmologist who in 1850 published a monograph regarding the physiology and pathology of the nasolacrimal duct wherein he described a flap of mucous membrane (now knows as Hasner's valve)
Joseph Rogers Brown
born Jan. 26, 1810, Warren, R.I., U.S. died July 23, 1876, Isles of Shoals, N.H. U.S. inventor and manufacturer. He perfected and produced a highly accurate linear dividing engine in 1850, and then developed a vernier caliper and also applied vernier methods to the protractor. With Lucian Sharpe he founded the Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing Co. His micrometre caliper appeared in 1867. He invented a precision gear cutter to produce clock gears, a universal milling machine, and (perhaps his finest innovation) a universal grinding machine, in which articles were hardened first and then ground, thereby increasing accuracy and eliminating waste
Joseph Rudyard Kipling
born Dec. 30, 1865, Bombay, India died Jan. 18, 1936, London, Eng. Indian-born British novelist, short-story writer, and poet. The son of a museum curator, he was reared in England but returned to India as a journalist. He soon became famous for volumes of stories, beginning with Plain Tales from the Hills (1888; including "The Man Who Would Be King"), and later for the poetry collection Barrack-Room Ballads (1892; including "Gunga Din" and "Mandalay"). His poems, often strongly rhythmic, are frequently narrative ballads. During a residence in the U.S., he published a novel, The Light That Failed (1890); the two Jungle Books (1894, 1895), stories of the wild boy Mowgli in the Indian jungle that have become children's classics; the adventure story Captains Courageous (1897); and Kim (1901), one of the great novels of India. He wrote six other volumes of short stories and several other verse collections. His children's books include the famous Just So Stories (1902) and the fairy-tale collection Puck of Pook's Hill (1906). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907. His extraordinary popularity in his own time declined as his reputation suffered after World War I because of his widespread image as a jingoistic imperialist
Joseph Simon Gallieni
born April 24, 1849, Saint-Béat, France died May 27, 1916, Versailles French army officer. As governor of the French Sudan (1886-88), he successfully combated rebel Sudanese forces. After service in Indochina (1892-96), he returned to Africa as governor-general of Madagascar (1896-1905) and won a reputation as a judicious and flexible colonial master. He successfully integrated both African territories into the French colonial empire. Named military commander of Paris just before World War I, he fought in the First Battle of the Marne and became minister of war in 1915. He was posthumously created marshal of France (1921)
Joseph Smith
a US religious leader who started the Mormon religion. He described how an angel showed him where two golden tablets (=flat pieces of metal with words cut into them) were buried in a hill in the state of New York. He translated the writing on the tablets and it became the Book of Mormon, the holy book of the Mormon religion (1805-44). born Dec. 23, 1805, Sharon, Vt., U.S. died June 27, 1844, Carthage, Ill. Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon church). He began experiencing visions as a teenager in Palmyra, N.Y. In 1827 he claimed that an angel had directed him to buried golden plates containing God's revelation; these he translated into the Book of Mormon (1830). He led converts to Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois, where he established the town of Nauvoo (1839), which soon became the state's largest town. Imprisoned for treason after his efforts to silence Mormon dissenters led to mob violence, he was murdered by a lynch mob that stormed the jail where he was held. His work was continued by Brigham Young
Joseph Stalin
(1879-1953, born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) Soviet politician, leader of the U.S.S.R (1924-1953)
Joseph Stalin
a Russian politician, born in Georgia, who was leader of the former Soviet Union from the death of Lenin (1924) until his own death. Stalin was responsible for developing farming and industry in his country, and for successfully leading it in the war against Germany (1941-45), but most people now remember his great cruelty. Thousands of political opponents were killed or sent to prisons in Siberia, and Stalin's secret police made ordinary people live in fear (1879-1953). orig. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili born Dec. 21, 1879, Gori, Georgia, Russian Empire died March 5, 1953, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R. Soviet politician and dictator. The son of a cobbler, he studied at a seminary but was expelled for revolutionary activity in 1899. He joined an underground revolutionary group and sided with the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party in 1903. A disciple of Vladimir Lenin, he served in minor party posts and was appointed to the first Bolshevik Central Committee (1912). He remained active behind the scenes and in exile (1913-17) until the Russian Revolution of 1917 brought the Bolsheviks to power. Having adopted the name Stalin (from Russian stal, "steel"), he served as commissar for nationalities and for state control in the Bolshevik government (1917-23). From 1922 he became secretary-general of the party's Central Committee, a post that later provided the power base for his dictatorship, and was also a member of the Politburo. After Lenin's death (1924), Stalin overcame his rivals, including Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinovyev, Lev Kamenev, Nikolay Bukharin, and Aleksey Rykov, and took control of Soviet politics. In 1928 he inaugurated the Five-Year Plans that radically altered Soviet economic and social structures and resulted in the deaths of many millions. In the 1930s he contrived to eliminate threats to his power through the purge trials and through widespread secret executions and persecution. In World War II he signed the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (1939), attacked Finland (see Russo-Finnish War), and annexed parts of eastern Europe to strengthen his western frontiers. When Germany invaded Russia (1941), Stalin took control of military operations. He allied Russia with Britain and the U.S.; at the Tehrn, Yalta, and Potsdam conferences, he demonstrated his negotiating skill. After the war he consolidated Soviet power in eastern Europe and built up the Soviet Union as a world military power. He continued his repressive political measures to control internal dissent; increasingly paranoid, he was preparing to mount another purge after the so-called Doctors' Plot when he died. Noted for bringing the Soviet Union into world prominence, at terrible cost to his own people, he left a legacy of repression and fear as well as industrial and military power. In 1956 Stalin and his personality cult were denounced by Nikita Khrushchev
Joseph Story
born Sept. 18, 1779, Marblehead, Mass., U.S. died Sept. 10, 1845, Cambridge, Mass. U.S. jurist. After graduating from Harvard University, he practiced law in Salem, Mass. (1801-11) and served in the state legislature and U.S. Congress (1805-11). In 1811, though he was only 32 and lacked any judicial experience, he was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States by Pres. James Madison. There he joined John Marshall in interpreting the U.S. Constitution in a manner favouring the expansion of federal power. His opinion in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816) established the court's appellate authority over the highest state courts. During his tenure on the court, he taught at Harvard (1829-45), where he became the first Dane Professor of Law and whose endowment funded his influential series of commentaries, including Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States (1833), The Conflict of Laws (1834), and On Equity Jurisprudence (1836). He and James Kent are considered the founders of U.S. equity jurisprudence
Joseph Trumpeldor
{i} (1880-1920) Russian born Zionist leader
Joseph Vernet
born Aug. 14, 1714, Avignon, France died Dec. 3, 1789, Paris French painter. Son of a decorative painter, he catered to a new taste for idealized, somewhat sentimentalized landscapes. His shipwrecks, sunsets, and conflagrations reveal a subtle observation of light and atmosphere. His series of 15 Ports of France (1754-65), his finest works, constitute a remarkable record of 18th-century life. His son Carle (1758-1836) produced vast battle scenes for Napoleon, but his real talent was for intimate genre scenes and drawing. His long series of fashionable studies, often satirizing contemporary manners and costume, were widely reproduced as engravings. After the restoration of the monarchy he became court painter to Louis XVIII. Carle's son Horace (1789-1863) developed a remarkable facility for working on a grand scale and became one of France's most important military painters
Joseph W Stilwell
born March 19, 1883, Palatka, Fla., U.S. died Oct. 12, 1946, San Francisco, Calif. U.S. army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in World War I. He studied Chinese and served in Tianjin (1926-29) and as a military attaché in Beijing (1935-39). At the outbreak of World War II, he became chief of staff to Gen. Chiang Kai-shek and commanded Chinese armies in Burma (1939-42). He became commander of U.S. forces in China, Burma, and India and oversaw construction of the Ledo, or Stilwell, Road, a strategic military link with the Burma Road. Promoted to general (1944), he commanded the U.S. 10th Army in the Pacific (1945-46)
Joseph Warren
born June 11, 1741, Roxbury, Mass. died June 17, 1775, Bunker Hill, Mass. American Revolutionary leader. He was a physician in Boston. He was active in patriot causes after passage of the Stamp Act (1765) and helped draft the Massachusetts colonial grievances called the Suffolk Resolves (1774). As a member of the Massachusetts Committee of Public Safety, he sent Paul Revere on his ride to Lexington. He was made a major general in the Revolutionary army and died in the Battle of Bunker Hill
Joseph Warren Stilwell
born March 19, 1883, Palatka, Fla., U.S. died Oct. 12, 1946, San Francisco, Calif. U.S. army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in World War I. He studied Chinese and served in Tianjin (1926-29) and as a military attaché in Beijing (1935-39). At the outbreak of World War II, he became chief of staff to Gen. Chiang Kai-shek and commanded Chinese armies in Burma (1939-42). He became commander of U.S. forces in China, Burma, and India and oversaw construction of the Ledo, or Stilwell, Road, a strategic military link with the Burma Road. Promoted to general (1944), he commanded the U.S. 10th Army in the Pacific (1945-46)
Joseph Wheeler
(1836-1906) Confederate officer during the American Civil War, general of the U.S. volunteer forces during the Spanish-American War
Joseph and his Technicolored Dream Coat
Andrew Lloyd Webber musical based on the biblical character of Joseph
Joseph ben Ephraim Caro
{i} (1488-1575) 16th century Jewish religious rabbinical authority and compiler of the Shulhan Aruch (Jewish code of laws)
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo
born 1488, Spain died March 24, 1575, Safed, Palestine Spanish-born Jewish scholar. When the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, he and his parents settled in Turkey. Around 1536 he emigrated to Safed in Palestine, where he studied the Talmud and systematized the vast body of material produced by post-Talmudic writers. He was the author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the House of Joseph, which was later condensed as The Well-Laid Table and is still authoritative for Orthodox Judaism
Joseph de Maistre
born April 1, 1753, Chambéry, France died Feb. 26, 1821, Turin, kingdom of Sardinia French polemical writer and diplomat. A member of the Savoy senate, he moved to Switzerland after the French invasion of Savoy in 1792. He served under the king of Sardinia as envoy to Russia (1803-17), then settled in Turin as chief magistrate and minister of state of the Sardinian kingdom. He was an exponent of the absolutist, conservative tradition and opposed the progress of science and liberal beliefs in such works as Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Constitutions (1814), On the Pope (1819), and The St. Petersburg Dialogues (1821). It was as a logical thinker, pursuing consequences from an accepted premise, that Maistre excelled
Joseph's Tomb
region in Shechem where legend claims that Joseph is buried
Joseph- Ernest Renan
born Feb. 28, 1823, Tréguier, France died Oct. 2, 1892, Paris French philosopher, historian, and scholar of religion. He trained for the priesthood but left the Catholic church in 1845, feeling that its teachings were incompatible with the findings of historical criticism, though he retained a quasi-Christian faith in God. His five-volume History of the Origins of Christianity (1863-80) includes his Life of Jesus (1863); an attempt to reconstruct the mind of Jesus as a wholly human person, it was virulently denounced by the church but widely read by the general public. His later works include the series History of the People of Israel (1888-96)
Joseph- Maurice Ravel
born March 7, 1875, Ciboure, France died Dec. 28, 1937, Paris French composer. At age 14 he was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire. Completing his piano studies, he returned to study composition with Gabriel Fauré, writing the important piano piece Jeux d'eau (completed 1901) and a string quartet. In the next decade he produced some of his best-known music, including Pavane pour une infante défunte (1899), the String Quartet (1903), and the Sonatine for piano (1905). His great ballet Daphnis et Chloé (1912) was commissioned by the impresario Sergey Diaghilev. Other works include the opera L'Enfant et les sortileges (1925), the suite Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917), and the orchestral works La Valse (1920) and Boléro (1928). Careful and precise, Ravel possessed great gifts as an orchestrator, and his works are universally admired for their superb craftsmanship; he has remained the most widely popular of all French composers
Joseph-Arthur count de Gobineau
born July 14, 1816, Ville-d'Avray, France died Oct. 13, 1882, Turin, Italy French diplomat and writer. While serving in the diplomatic service (1849-77), he wrote the Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1853-55), which asserted the superiority of the white race over others and labeled the "Aryans," or Germanic peoples, as the summit of civilization. He claimed that white societies flourished as long as they remained free of "black and yellow strains" and that dilution would lead to corruption. His theory of racial determinism in Essay influenced the racist policies of such figures as Robert F. Wagner, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, and Adolf Hitler
Joseph-François Dupleix
born 1697, Landrecies, France died Nov. 10, 1763, Paris French colonial administrator who attempted to establish a French empire in India. His father, a director of the French East India Company, secured him an appointment in 1720 to the superior council of Pondicherry, capital of French India, and in 1742 he was named governor-general of French India. He fought the British in India during the War of the Austrian Succession (1744) and later attempted to undermine the British position in southern India. His schemes exhausted French finances, and he was recalled to France, discredited, in 1754
Joseph-Louis Lagrange
later count de L'Empire born Jan. 25, 1736, Turin, Sardinia-Piedmont died April 10, 1813, Paris, France Italian-born French mathematician who made important contributions to number theory and to classical and celestial mechanics. By age 25 he was recognized as one of the greatest living mathematicians because of his papers on wave propagation (see wave motion) and maxima and minima (see maximum; minimum) of curves. His prodigious output included his textbook Mécanique analytique (1788), the basis for all later work in this field. His remarkable discoveries included the Lagrangian, a differential operator characterizing a system's physical state, and the Lagrangian points, points in space where a small body in the gravitational fields of two large ones remains relatively stable
Joseph-Marie Jacquard
born July 7, 1752, Lyon, Fr. died Aug. 7, 1834, Oullins French inventor. In 1801 he demonstrated an automatic loom incorporating revolutionary new technology; it was declared public property in 1806, and Jacquard was rewarded with a pension and a royalty on each machine. His loom utilized interchangeable punched cards that controlled the weaving of the cloth so that any desired pattern could be obtained automatically. The Jacquard loom's technology became the basis of the modern automatic loom and a precursor of the modern computer. His punched cards were adapted by Charles Babbage as an input/output medium for his proposed analytical engine and by Herman Hollerith to feed data to his census machine, and punched cards were used for inputting data into early digital computers
Joseph-Pierre Hilaire Belloc
born July 27, 1870, La Celle-Saint-Cloud, France died July 16, 1953, Guildford, Surrey, Eng. French-born British poet, historian, Catholic apologist, and essayist. A highly versatile writer, he is best remembered for his light verse, particularly for children, and for his lucid and graceful essays. His works include Verses and Sonnets (1895), The Bad Child's Book of Beasts (1896), The Modern Traveller (1898), Mr. Burden (1904), and Cautionary Tales (1907). He also wrote several historical works, including a four-volume History of England (1925-31)
Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger
born March 19, 1873, Brand, Bavaria, Ger. died May 11, 1916, Leipzig German composer and organist. From 1890 to 1893 he studied at Sondershausen and Wiesbaden and taught piano, organ, and theory. By 1901, despite opposition to his traditional methods, he had established himself in Munich as a composer, pianist, and teacher. He became a prolific composer of songs, piano pieces, and especially organ music. His music, combining progressive and conservative elements and often highly chromatic, has always been more popular in Germany than elsewhere
John Joseph McGraw
born April 7, 1873, Truxton, N.Y., U.S. died Feb. 25, 1934, New Rochelle, N.Y. U.S. baseball player and manager. McGraw was a star infielder for the Baltimore National League team in the 1890s. His batting average of .391 in 1899 remains the highest ever for a third baseman. As manager of the New York Giants (1902-32), he led the team to 10 National League championships and 3 World Series titles (1905, 1921, 1922). For his shrewdness and veneer of harshness, he acquired the nickname "Little Napoleon
John Joseph Pershing
born Sept. 13, 1860, Laclede, Mo., U.S. died July 15, 1948, Washington, D.C. U.S. army officer. He graduated from West Point and served on the western frontier (1886-98), in the Spanish-American War, in the Philippines (1899-1903, 1906-13), and as commander of a punitive raid against Pancho Villa (1916). During World War I he was appointed commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF). He maintained the AEF as an independent army of two million men and resisted Allied efforts to use U.S. forces as replacement units for French and British troops. He led the successful assault of the St. Mihiel salient in September 1918 and helped defeat German forces in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. He was promoted to general of the armies in 1919 and was army chief of staff from 1921 to 1924. His nickname, "Black Jack," derived from his service with an African American regiment early in his career (see buffalo soldier). His memoirs, My Experiences in the World War (1931), won a Pulitzer Prize
Jesus, Mary and Joseph
Used to add emphasis, particularly by Catholics
Adolf Joseph Ferdinand Galland
born March 19, 1912, Westerholt, near Recklinghausen, Ger. died Feb. 9, 1996, Oberwinter German fighter ace. A skillful glider pilot by age 20, he flew hundreds of missions in the Spanish Civil War. In World War II he led a fighter squadron in the Battle of Britain, destroying 100 British planes, and became commander of the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. Blamed by Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring for the collapse of Germany's air defense against Anglo-American bombing raids, he was relieved of his command in 1945. Briefly imprisoned at the war's end, he later became an adviser to the Argentine air force and an aviation consultant in West Germany
Akiba ben Joseph
He believed that Scripture contained many implied meanings in addition to its overt meaning, and he regarded written law (Torah) and oral law (Halakhah) as ultimately one. He collected and systematized the oral traditions concerning the conduct of Jewish social and religious life, thus laying the foundation of the Mishna. He may have been involved in Bar Kokhba's unsuccessful rebellion against Rome; he gave the rebel leader his title and recognized him as the messiah. He was imprisoned by the Romans and martyred for his public teaching. See also Ishmael ben Elisha
Akiba ben Joseph
born AD 40 died 135, Caesarea, Palestine Jewish sage, one of the founders of rabbinic Judaism. He is said to have been an illiterate shepherd who began to study after age
Anthony Joseph Drexel
born Sept. 13, 1826, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. died June 30, 1893, Carlsbad, Bohemia U.S. banker and philanthropist. He and his brothers inherited his father's Philadelphia banking house and built it into a successful investment-banking concern, specializing in flotation of government bonds, railroad organization, mining development, and urban real estate. In 1891 he founded the Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and Industry, now Drexel University. He was the uncle of St. Katherine Drexel
Anthony Joseph Jr. Foyt
born Jan. 16, 1935, Houston, Texas, U.S. U.S. automobile racing driver. He became the first four-time winner of the Indianapolis 500 (1961, 1964, 1967, 1977) and is the only driver to have won the Indy 500, the Daytona 500, and the Le Mans Grand Prix. He was national champion stock-car driver in 1968, 1978, and 1979, and he also amassed numerous wins in sports-and midget-car racing
Archibald Joseph Cronin
born July 19, 1896, Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scot. died Jan. 6, 1981, Montreux, Switz. Scottish novelist. Trained as a surgeon, he practiced medicine mostly in mining communities, but he ceased because of ill health and used his leisure to write. His books combine sentimentality with social criticism. His first novel, Hatter's Castle (1931; film, 1941), was an immediate success. His classic The Stars Look Down (1935; film, 1939) chronicles social injustice in a mining community. Other works include The Citadel (1937; film, 1938), The Keys of the Kingdom (1942; film, 1944), The Green Years (1944; film, 1946), The Judas Tree (1961), and A Thing of Beauty (1956)
Arnold Joseph Toynbee
born April 14, 1889, London, Eng. died Oct. 22, 1975, York, North Yorkshire English historian. Long a professor at the University of London and the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Toynbee also held positions with the British Foreign Office. He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History (1934-61), which put forward a philosophy of history, based on an analysis of the development and decline of 26 civilizations. Criticisms of his Study include his use of myths and metaphors as being of comparable value to factual data and his reliance on a view of religion as a regenerative force. His other works include Civilization on Trial (1948), East to West (1958), and Hellenism (1959)
Arthur Joseph Goldberg
born Aug. 8, 1908, Chicago, Ill., U.S. died Jan. 19, 1990, Washington, D.C. U.S. jurist. After passing the Illinois bar examination at the age of 20, he practiced law in Chicago from 1929 to 1948. He first gained national attention as counsel for the Chicago Newspaper Guild during its 1938 strike. In 1948 he went to Washington, D.C., as general counsel for the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and the United Steelworkers of America. He was instrumental in merging the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO in 1955. After serving as U.S. secretary of labour (1961-62), he was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States (1962-65). At the request of Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, he gave up his seat on the court to become U.S. ambassador to the UN (1965-68), a post he resigned in protest over Johnson's escalation of the Vietnam War. He twice served as ambassador-at-large for Pres. Jimmy Carter
Auguste-Marie-Joseph- Jean Jaurès
born Sept. 3, 1859, Castres, France died July 31, 1914, Paris French socialist leader. He served in the Chamber of Deputies (1885-89, 1893-98, 1902-14) and at first adopted the ideas of Alexandre Millerand. After 1899 the socialists split into two groups, and Jaurès headed the French Socialist Party, advocating reconciliation with the state. In the newspaper L'Humanité, which he cofounded in 1904, he espoused democratic socialism, but when the Second International (1904) rejected his position he acquiesced. In 1905 the two French socialist parties united, and his authority continued to grow. On the eve of World War I, he espoused peace through arbitration and championed Franco-German rapprochement, which earned him the hatred of French nationalists, and he was assassinated in 1914 by a young nationalist fanatic. He wrote several books, including the influential Socialist History of the French Revolution (1901-07)
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen
born Sept. 23, 1949, Freehold, N.J., U.S. U.S. singer and songwriter. He played guitar in several bar bands on the Jersey Shore before forming the E Street Band in the early 1970s. His third album, Born to Run (1975), was a huge success and landed "the Boss" on the covers of Time and Newsweek magazines. Even more successful was his Born in the USA (1984). Springsteen's sensitive lyrics, often voicing his working-class sympathies, and marathon concerts won him a devoted following. He addressed Americans' concerns over the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, in The Rising (2002)
Charles Joseph Chamberlain
born Feb. 23, 1863, Sullivan, Ohio, U.S. died Feb. 5, 1943, Chicago, Ill. U.S. botanist. His research into the structure and life cycles of primitive plants (cycads) enabled him to suggest a course of evolutionary development for the egg and embryo of seed plants (spermatophytes) and to speculate about a cycad origin for flowering plants (angiosperms). He organized and directed the botanical laboratories at the University of Chicago (1897-1931), where, with plants collected in Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Cuba, he created the world's foremost collection of living cycads
Charles-Auguste-Louis-Joseph duke de Morny
born Oct. 21, 1811, Paris, France died March 10, 1865, Paris French politician. Half brother of Louis-Napoléon (later Napoleon III), Morny devoted himself to Parisian society and to making a fortune before serving in the Chamber of Deputies (1842-48, 1849). Appointed minister of the interior in 1851, he organized the plebiscite that made Louis-Napoléon dictator. As president of the legislature (1856-65), he tried unsuccessfully to persuade Napoleon III to give France more liberty
Chief Joseph
the chief of a Native American tribe who fought against the US army in 1870. He was not successful, and his tribe was forced to leave their land and move to a reservation (?1840-1904). born 1840, Wallowa Valley, Ore.Terr. died Sept. 21, 1904, Colville Reservation, Wash., U.S. Nez Percé chief. In 1877 the U.S. attempted to force the Nez Percé to move to a reservation in Idaho. Chief Joseph at first agreed but later decided instead to lead his followers on a trek to Canada. During the three-month, 1,000-mile journey, he outmaneuvered and outfought federal troops, and his humane conduct won the admiration of many whites. His group was finally surrounded near the Canadian border and subsequently removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). In 1885 they were relocated to a reservation in Washington
Claude- Joseph Vernet
born Aug. 14, 1714, Avignon, France died Dec. 3, 1789, Paris French painter. Son of a decorative painter, he catered to a new taste for idealized, somewhat sentimentalized landscapes. His shipwrecks, sunsets, and conflagrations reveal a subtle observation of light and atmosphere. His series of 15 Ports of France (1754-65), his finest works, constitute a remarkable record of 18th-century life. His son Carle (1758-1836) produced vast battle scenes for Napoleon, but his real talent was for intimate genre scenes and drawing. His long series of fashionable studies, often satirizing contemporary manners and costume, were widely reproduced as engravings. After the restoration of the monarchy he became court painter to Louis XVIII. Carle's son Horace (1789-1863) developed a remarkable facility for working on a grand scale and became one of France's most important military painters
Daniel Joseph and Philip Francis Berrigan
born May 9, 1921, Virginia, Minn., U.S.(born Oct. 5, 1923, Two Harbors, Minn., U.S. died Dec. 6, 2002, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. priests and political activists. After joining the Catholic priesthood (Daniel became a Jesuit, Philip a Josephite), the brothers became involved in nonviolent political activism, carrying out campaigns of civil disobedience to oppose racism, the nuclear arms race, and the Vietnam War. They were best known for their Vietnam-era raid of draft-board files in Catonsville, Md., which they destroyed with chicken blood and napalm. They were also known for the persistence of their activism. Philip later left the priesthood. Both authored numerous books on their work and beliefs; Daniel also wrote poetry and plays
Edwin Joseph Cohn
born Dec. 17, 1892, New York, N.Y, U.S. died Oct. 1, 1953, Boston, Mass. U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago and taught at Harvard 1922-53. He studied the components of protein molecules, correlating their structures with their physical properties and determining basic principles that became the foundation for the further study of proteins. In World War II he headed a team that devised methods of large-scale production of human plasma fractions for treatment of the wounded
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
born May 3, 1748, Fréjus, France died June 20, 1836, Paris French political theorist. A Catholic priest, he rose to become chancellor of the diocese of Chartres in 1788. In sympathy with the reform movement before the French Revolution, he won great popularity with his pamphlet What Is the Third Estate? (1789) and was elected to represent the Third Estate in the Estates-General. He led the movement to establish the National Assembly, then served in the National Convention until the radical Jacobins seized control (1793). During the Directory, he served on the Council of Five Hundred (1795-99) and on the Directory itself (1799). He helped organize the military Coup of 18-19 Brumaire, which overthrew the Directory and brought Napoleon to power. After the monarchy's restoration (1815), he lived in exile in Belgium until 1830
Eugene Joseph McCarthy
born March 29, 1916, Watkins, Minn., U.S. U.S. politician. He taught at the College of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minn., before being elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1949-59) and later the Senate (1959-71). A liberal Democrat, he became an outspoken critic of the Vietnam War. In 1968 he ran for the Democratic Party presidential nomination. His initial successes convinced Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson not to seek reelection. After losing the nomination to Hubert H. Humphrey, McCarthy decided not to run for reelection to the Senate. He made another unsuccessful attempt at the Democratic nomination in 1972 and ran unsuccessfully for president as an independent in 1976
Father Joseph
orig. François-Joseph le Clerc du Tremblay born Nov. 4, 1577, Paris, France died Dec. 18, 1638, Rueil French mystic and religious reformer. He joined the Capuchins in 1599. His fervent ambition to convert European Protestants to Roman Catholicism coincided with cardinal de Richelieu's plans for French domination of Europe, and he became Richelieu's secretary in 1611. He became known as the "Gray Eminence" (for his gray Capuchin cloak), and his close collaboration with Richelieu (the "Red Eminence") gave him powers akin to those of a foreign minister, especially during Richelieu's campaign to finance France's participation in the Thirty Years' War, which Joseph's policies did much to bring about
Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe Morton
{i} (1885-1941) pianist, jazz composer, known as "Jelly Roll
Francis Joseph
German Franz Josef born Aug. 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna died Nov. 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn Emperor of Austria (1848-1916) and king of Hungary (1867-1916). He became emperor during the Revolutions of 1848 after the abdication of his uncle, Ferdinand I. With his prime minister, Felix, prince zu Schwarzenberg, he achieved a powerful position for Austria, in particular with the Punctation of Olmütz convention in 1850. His harsh, absolutist rule within Austria produced a strong central government but also led to rioting and an assassination attempt. Following Austria's defeat by Prussia in the Seven Weeks' War (1866), he responded to Hungarian national unrest by accepting the Compromise of 1867. He adhered to the Three Emperors' League and formed an alliance with Prussian-led Germany that led to the Triple Alliance (1882). In 1898 his wife was assassinated, and in 1889 his son Rudolf, his heir apparent, died in a suicide love pact. In 1914 his ultimatum to Serbia following the murder of the next heir presumptive, Francis Ferdinand, led Austria and Germany into World War I
Franz Joseph Gall
born March 9, 1758, Tiefenbronn, Baden died Aug. 22, 1828, Paris, Fr. German anatomist and physiologist, founder of phrenology. Convinced that mental functions reside in specific brain areas and determine behaviour, he assumed that the skull surface reflected development of these areas. The first concept was proved correct when Paul Broca located the brain's speech centre in 1861. The second was invalidated when it was found that the skull's thickness varies, so its shape does not reflect the brain's. Gall was the first to identify gray matter with active tissue (nerves) and white matter with conducting tissue
Franz Joseph Haydn
born March 31, 1732, Rohrau, Austria died May 31, 1809, Vienna Austrian composer. Intended for the priesthood, he was recruited at age eight to the choir at St. Stephen's Church, Vienna, where he learned violin and keyboard. On leaving the choir, he began supporting himself by teaching and playing violin, while undertaking rigorous study of counterpoint and harmony. He came to the attention of Pietro Metastasio and through him became factotum to the composer Nicola Porpora in exchange for lessons. Gaining entrée to high society, in 1761 he became head of the musical establishment at the great palace of the Esterházy family, which would support him for most of his career. In this position of artistic isolation but with excellent resources, Haydn felt free to experiment and was forced to become original. By his late years he was recognized internationally as the greatest living composer. He composed important works in almost every genre, and his elegant and ingratiating works balance wit and seriousness, custom and innovation. The first great symphonist, he composed 108 symphonies, including the popular last 12 "London symphonies" (1791-95). He virtually invented the string quartet, and his 68 quartets remain the foundation of the quartet literature. His choral works include 15 masses and the oratorios The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801). He also wrote 48 piano sonatas and more than 100 beautiful works for the cello-like baryton. The principal shaper of the Classical style, he exerted major influence on his friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and on his student Ludwig van Beethoven
Franz Joseph Haydn
{i} (1732-1809) Austrian composer who was very influential in the development of the classical symphony
François-Joseph Talma
born Jan. 16, 1763, Paris, France died Oct. 19, 1826, Paris French actor and theatre manager. He made his debut at the Comédie-Française in 1787. Influenced by the painter Jacques-Louis David, he became an early advocate of historical costuming, and he created a sensation by appearing onstage in a Roman toga. After political dissension split the company (1789), the pro-republican Talma established a rival troupe. He developed realism in his staging and insisted on a naturalistic rather than a declamatory acting style. In 1799 his troupe was reunited with the Comédie-Française; as head of the company, he became recognized as the supreme tragedian of the era, winning the admiration of Napoleon
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling
born Jan. 27, 1775, Leonberg, Württemberg died Aug. 20, 1854, Bad Ragaz, Switz. German philosopher and educator. Inspired by Immanuel Kant, in his System of Transcendental Idealism (1800) he attempted to unite his concept of nature with the philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. He held that art mediates between the natural and physical spheres when the natural (or unconscious) and spiritual (or conscious) productions are united in artistic creation. His view that the Absolute expresses itself in all beings as the unity of the subjective and the objective was criticized by G.W.F. Hegel. In Of Human Freedom (1809), he declared that mankind's freedom is real only if it is freedom for both good and evil, a position that forms the basis of his later philosophy. A major figure of post-Kantian idealism, Schelling had an important influence on Romanticism. See also Immanuel Kant; Kantianism
George Joseph Herriman
born 1881, New Orleans, La., U.S. died May 1944, Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif. U.S. cartoonist. He grew up in California and "passed" as white, along with his Creole parents. He started cartooning after a fall from a scaffold prevented him from working as a house painter. His first comic strip, Lariat Pete, appeared in 1903 in the San Francisco Chronicle; it was followed by several others. His best-known strip, Krazy Kat, appeared in 1910 and settled in for a run of more than 30 years in the William Randolph Hearst newspapers. Krazy Kat's fantasy, drawing, and dialogue were of such high quality that some people consider it the finest comic strip ever published
George Joseph Stigler
born Jan. 17, 1911, Renton, Wash., U.S. died Dec. 1, 1991, Chicago, Ill. U.S. economist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He taught at various institutions and in 1977 founded the Center for the Study of the Economy and the State at the University of Chicago. Stigler studied the economics of information, elaborating on the traditional understanding of how efficient markets operate. He also studied public regulation, concluding that it is usually detrimental to consumer interests. He won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1982
Georges -Joseph-Christian Simenon
born Feb. 13, 1903, Liège, Belg. died Sept. 4, 1989, Lausanne, Switz. Belgian-born French novelist. During 1923-33 he wrote more than 200 pseudonymous books of pulp fiction. His first novel under his own name was The Case of Peter the Lett (1931), in which he introduced one of the best-known characters in detective fiction, the Parisian police official Inspector Maigret. He wrote some 80 more Maigret novels, as well as about 130 psychological novels, numerous short stories, and autobiographical works, and was one of the most prolific and widely published authors of the 20th century. Simenon's central theme is the essential humanity of even the isolated, abnormal individual and the sorrow at the root of the human condition. Employing a style of rigorous simplicity, he evokes a prevailing atmosphere of neurotic tensions with sharp economy
Harold Joseph Laski
born June 30, 1893, Manchester, Eng. died March 24, 1950, London British political scientist, educator, and political leader. Educated at the University of Oxford, he taught at McGill University and Harvard University before returning to Britain to work for the Labour Party. He later taught at the London School of Economics (1926-50). He argued in works such as The State in Theory and Practice (1935) that the economic difficulties of capitalism might lead to the destruction of political democracy, and he came to view socialism as the only alternative to fascism. He was an assistant to Clement R. Attlee during World War II
Henry -Marie-Joseph-Millon de Montherlant
born April 21, 1896, Paris, France died Sept. 21, 1972, Paris French novelist and dramatist. Born into a noble family, he wrote stylistically concise works that reflect his own egocentric and autocratic personality. His major work of fiction is a cycle of four novels (1936-39) translated as The Girls, which describes the relationship between a libertine novelist and his adoring female victims. In the 1940s he turned to theatre; his best dramatic works include Malatesta (1946), Port-Royal (1954), and La Guerre civile (1965)
Hermann Joseph Muller
born Dec. 21, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S. died April 5, 1967, Indianapolis, Ind. U.S. geneticist. He attended Columbia University. The possibility of consciously guiding human evolution provided the initial motivation for his research, leading him to work in the Soviet Union's Institute of Genetics. He later assisted the Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War before returning to the U.S. in 1940; he thereafter taught principally at Indiana University (1945-67). In 1926 he first induced genetic mutations through the use of X rays, and he demonstrated that mutations are the result of breakages in chromosomes and of changes in individual genes. His receipt of the Nobel Prize in 1946 increased his opportunities to publicize the dangers posed by accumulating spontaneous mutations in the human gene pool as a result of industrial processes and radiation, and he devoted much energy to increasing public awareness of the genetic dangers of radiation
Hermann Joseph Muller
{i} Hermann Muller (1890-1967), USA geneticist
Ignace Joseph Pleyel
or Ignaz Josef Pleyel born June 18, 1757, Ruppersthal, Austria died Nov. 14, 1831, Paris, France Austrian-French music publisher, piano maker, and composer. He studied with Joseph Haydn ( 1772-77), then held posts in Vienna and Strasbourg and traveled in Italy before settling in Paris. His publishing house, Maison Pleyel, published Haydn's complete string quartets (1801), and in 1802 it published the first miniature scores for study. It ceased publishing in 1834, but the piano-manufacturing company he founded in 1807 lasted until the 1960s. Pleyel's music, including 45 symphonies and more than 70 string quartets, was once very popular
James Augustus Joseph Van Der Zee
v. born June 29, 1886, Lenox, Mass., U.S. died May 15, 1983, Washington, D.C. U.S. photographer. In 1906 he moved with his family to Harlem in New York City. After a brief stint at a portrait studio in Newark, N.J., he returned to Harlem to set up his own studio. The portraits he took from 1918 to 1945 chronicled the Harlem Renaissance; among his many renowned subjects were Countee Cullen, Bill Robinson, and Marcus Garvey. After World War II his fortunes declined until the Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibited his photographs in 1969
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
{i} Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), French mathematician and physicist who studied the conduction of heat
Jean-Baptiste- Joseph Baron Fourier
born March 21, 1768, Auxerre, France died May 16, 1830, Paris French mathematician and Egyptologist. While an engineer on Napoleon's Egyptian expedition, he conducted (1798-1801) anthropological investigations and wrote the preface to the monumental Description de l'Égypte, whose publication he oversaw (1809-28). In 1808 he was created a baron by Napoleon. In mathematics he is primarily known for his work in heat conduction (1807-22), for his use of the Fourier series to solve differential equations, and for the related concept of the Fourier transform. As a scientist and humanist, he epitomized the spirit of French intellectualism of the Revolutionary era
Jean-Joseph-Charles- Louis Blanc
born Oct. 29, 1811, Madrid, Spain died Dec. 6, 1882, Cannes, France French utopian socialist and journalist. In 1839 he founded the socialist newspaper Revue du Progrès and serially published his The Organization of Labour, which described his theory of worker-controlled "social workshops" that would gradually take over production until a socialist society came into being. He was a member of the provisional government of the Second Republic (1848) but was forced to flee to England after workers unsuccessfully revolted. In exile (1848-70), he wrote a history of the French Revolution and other political works
Jr. Joseph Clifford Montana
in full Joseph Clifford Montana, Jr. born June 11, 1956, New Eagle, Pa., U.S. U.S. football quarterback. He played for the University of Notre Dame, leading his team to the national championship in 1977. Playing with the San Francisco 49ers from 1979 to 1993, he led the team to Super Bowl championships in 1982, 1985, 1989, and 1990. He maintained one of the highest passing-completion rates in the NFL, with a career average of 63.2. His career totals for passes completed (3,409), yards passing (40,551), and touchdown passes (273) are among the highest on record. He finished his career with the Kansas City Chiefs (1993-95) and was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2000
Jr. Paul Joseph Martin
in full Paul Joseph Martin, Jr. born Aug. 28, 1938, Windsor, Ont., Can. Canadian prime minister (from 2003). The son of Paul Joseph Martin, who served as a minister in four Liberal governments, the younger Martin studied law at the University of Toronto and was called to the bar in 1966. Instead of practicing law, however, he joined Canada Steamship Lines, a freight carrier that he purchased in 1981. From 1993 to 2002 Martin, a member of the Liberal Party, served as the minister of finance in Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's government. Highly successful in the post, Martin eliminated a large budget deficit, achieved five consecutive budget surpluses, and secured the largest tax cut in Canadian history. In 2003 Martin succeeded Chrétien as leader of the Liberal Party and as prime minister
Jules -Joseph Perrot
born Aug. 18, 1810, Lyon, Fr. died Aug. 24, 1892, Paramé French dancer and choreographer. After studying with Auguste Vestris, he debuted at the Paris Opéra in 1830. He often partnered Marie Taglioni until 1835, when he left the company to tour in Europe. He choreographed several ballets for Carlotta Grisi, probably including the famous solos in Giselle. As dancer and ballet master in London (1842-48) and St. Petersburg (1848-58), he choreographed many important Romantic ballets with an expressive, dramatic style. In his later years he gave classes at the Paris Opéra
Kenneth Joseph Arrow
born Aug. 23, 1921, New York, N.Y., U.S. U.S. economist. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University and taught principally at Stanford and Harvard. Arrow's books include Social Choices and Individual Values (1951). His most striking claim was that, under certain conditions of rationality and equality, a ranking of societal preferences will not necessarily correspond to the rankings of individual preferences, given more than two individuals and alternative choices. In 1972 he shared the Nobel Prize with John R. Hicks
Louis Joseph Ignarro
born May 31, 1941, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S. U.S. pharmacologist. He earned a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Along with Robert F. Furchgott and Ferid Murad, Ignarro was awarded a 1998 Nobel Prize for the discovery that nitric oxide acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Ignarro concluded that the factor that Furchgott had named endothelium-derived relaxing factor was nitric oxide. This work uncovered an entirely new mechanism by which blood vessels in the body relax and widen. It was the first discovery that a gas could act as a signaling molecule in a living organism. The principle behind the drug Viagra, used to treat impotence, was based upon this research
Louis Joseph Papineau
born Oct. 7, 1786, Montreal, Que. died Sept. 23, 1871, Montebello, Que., Can. Canadian politician. He was elected to the legislative assembly of Lower Canada (now Quebec) in 1808 and became its speaker in 1815. A leader of the French-Canadian Party, he opposed the British-dominated government of Lower Canada. In 1834 he helped draft the 92 Resolutions, a statement of French-Canadian demands and grievances. When the British governor rejected the resolutions, hostilities broke out. Papineau escaped to the U.S. and then to France, where he lived from 1839 to 1844. He returned to Canada under an amnesty in 1844 and served in the Canadian House of Commons from 1848 to 1854, though he never regained his leadership of the French-Canadians
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
{i} (1712-1759) general of French armed forces in Canada
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon marquis de Montcalm
born Feb. 28, 1712, Château de Candiac, France died Sept. 14, 1759, Quebec French military leader. He joined the French army at age 12 and fought in several European conflicts. In 1756 he was placed in command of French troops in North America, but his commission excluded most military resources in Canada. He forced the British to surrender their post at Oswego and captured Fort William Henry (1757). At the Battle of Ticonderoga (1758), he repulsed an attack by 15,000 British troops with a force of just 3,800 men. Promoted to lieutenant general, he received authority over military affairs in Canada. In 1759 a British force of 8,500 troops under Gen. James Wolfe marched on Quebec; in the ensuing Battle of Quebec, Montcalm fought with conspicuous gallantry and was mortally wounded
Marie-Joseph- Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
born May 1, 1881, Sarcenat, France died April 10, 1955, New York, N.Y., U.S. French philosopher and paleontologist. Ordained a Jesuit priest in 1911, he taught geology from 1918 at the Institut Catholique in Paris. In 1929 he directed the excavations at the Peking man site at Zhoukoudian. This and other geological work won him high honours, though it came to be disapproved of by the Jesuit order. His philosophy was strongly informed by his scientific work, which he believed helped prove the existence of God. He is known for his theory that mankind is evolving, mentally and socially, toward a final spiritual unity that he called the Omega point. Though his major philosophical works, The Divine Milieu (1957) and The Phenomenon of Man (1955), were written in the 1920s and '30s, their publication in his lifetime was forbidden by the Jesuits
Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier marquis de Lafayette
born Sept. 6, 1757, Chavaniac, France died May 20, 1834, Paris French military leader. Born to an ancient noble family of great wealth, he was a courtier at the court of Louis XVI but sought glory as a soldier. In 1777 he went to America, was appointed a major general, became a close friend of George Washington, and fought with distinction at the Battle of the Brandywine. He returned to France in 1779, persuaded Louis to send a 6,000-man force to aid the colonists, and returned to America in 1780 to command an army in Virginia and help win the Siege of Yorktown. Hailed as "the Hero of Two Worlds," he returned to France in 1782, became a leader of liberal aristocrats, and was elected to the Estates General in 1789. He presented the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen to the National Assembly. Elected commander of the national guard of Paris, he sought to protect the king, favouring a constitutional monarchy. When his guards fired on a crowd of petitioners in the Champ de Mars (1791), he lost popularity and resigned his position. He commanded the army against Austria (1792), then defected to the Austrians, who held him captive until 1797. Returning to France, Lafayette became a gentleman farmer. In the Bourbon Restoration, he served in the Chamber of Deputies (1814-24) and commanded the national guard in the July Revolution (1830)
Michael Joseph Jackson
born Aug. 29, 1958, Gary, Ind., U.S. U.S. singer and songwriter. The nine-year-old Jackson became the lead singer of The Jackson Five, a family group formed by his father. Their hits on the Motown label included "I Want You Back" and "ABC." Though Michael remained a member of the group until 1984, he began recording under his own name in 1971. His album Off the Wall (1979) sold millions; his next solo album, Thriller (1982), sold more than 40 million copies, becoming the best-selling album in history. The emerging format of the music video was an important aspect of Jackson's work; his videos for "Beat It" and "Billie Jean" (both 1983) featured his highly influential dancing style (notably his trademark "moonwalk"). He later released the albums Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995). Despite his many efforts to speak out on social issues, Jackson's eccentric, secluded lifestyle stirred controversy in the early 1990s. His reputation was seriously damaged in 1993 when he was accused of child molestation by a 13-year-old boy. Several of his siblings, notably his sister Janet (b. 1966), have also enjoyed solo success
Michael Joseph Mansfield
known as Mike Mansfield born March 16, 1903, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Oct. 5, 2001, Washington, D.C. U.S. politician who was the longest-serving majority leader (1961-77) in the U.S. Senate. He worked in Montana copper mines and later taught history at Montana State University. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1943 to 1953 and in the Senate from 1953 to 1977. An outspoken critic of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, he sponsored a 1971 bill calling for a cease-fire and phased withdrawal. He was a persistent critic of Pres. Richard Nixon, especially during the Watergate scandal. After retiring, he served as U.S. ambassador to Japan (1977-88)
Paul Joseph Goebbels
a German Nazi politician who controlled German propaganda during the Second World War (1897-1945). born Oct. 29, 1897, Rheydt, Ger. died May 1, 1945, Berlin German Nazi leader. After earning a doctorate from Heidelberg University, he joined the Nazi Party and was appointed district leader in Berlin by Adolf Hitler in 1926. A gifted speaker, Goebbels also edited the party's journal and began to create the Führer myth around Hitler, instituting the party demonstrations that helped convert the masses to Nazism. After Hitler seized power in 1933, Goebbels took control of the national propaganda machinery. During World War II he carried on a personal propaganda blitz to raise hopes on the home front. Named chancellor in Hitler's will, he remained with Hitler to the end. One day after Hitler's suicide, Goebbels and his wife killed themselves and their six children
Paul Joseph Goebbels
{i} (1897-1945) minister of propaganda for the German Nazi party who persecuted Jewish people
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
born Jan. 15, 1809, Besançon, France died Jan. 19, 1865, Paris French journalist and socialist. After working as a printer, he moved to Paris in 1838 and joined the socialist movement. His What Is Property? (1840) created a sensation with such phrases as "property is theft." While working in Lyon (1843-48), he encountered the Mutualists, a weavers' anarchist society whose name he later adopted for his form of anarchism. His System of Economic Contradictions (1846) was attacked by Karl Marx and initiated the split between anarchists and Marxists. In Paris in 1848, Proudhon published radical newspapers; imprisoned (1849-52), he was harassed by the police after his release and fled to Belgium in 1858. On his return in 1862, he gained influence among the workers, including some of the founders of the First International
Richard Joseph Daley
born May 15, 1902, Chicago, Ill., U.S. died Dec. 20, 1976, Chicago U.S. politician, mayor of Chicago (1955-76). A lawyer in his native Chicago, Daley served as state director of revenue (1948-50) and clerk of Cook county (1950-55) before being elected mayor. He pushed urban renewal and highway construction and a sweeping reform of the police department, but he was criticized for failing to eliminate racial segregation in housing and public schools, for promoting downtown skyscraper construction, and for police brutality committed against demonstrators at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. His tight control of city politics through job patronage won him a reputation as "the last of the big-city bosses." His last years were marred by scandals surrounding members of his administration. His son Richard M. Daley (b. 1942) was first elected mayor of Chicago in 1989
Richard Joseph Neutra
born April 8, 1892, Vienna, Austria died April 16, 1970, Wuppertal, W.Ger. Austrian-born U.S. architect. Educated in Vienna and Zürich, Neutra moved to the U.S. in 1923. His most important early work was the Lovell House, Los Angeles (1927-29), which features glass expanses and cable-suspended balconies. Shortly after World War II, Neutra created his most memorable works: the Kaufmann Desert House, Palm Springs, Calif. (1946-47), and the Tremaine House, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1947-48). Elegant and precise, these houses are considered exceptionally fine examples of the International Style, which Neutra helped introduce into the U.S. Carefully placed in the landscape, Neutra's houses often have patios or porches that make the outdoors seem part of the house. He believed that architecture should be a means of bringing man back into harmony with nature and with himself and was particularly concerned that his houses reflect the way of life of the owner. His later works included office buildings, churches, housing projects, and cultural centres. His many writings include Survival Through Design (1954)
Robert Joseph Flaherty
born Feb. 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Mich., U.S. died July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vt. U.S. filmmaker, considered the father of the documentary. He grew up in remote northern Canada and later led explorations of the area (1910-16). He lived with the Eskimos for 16 months and filmed their way of life. His resulting film, Nanook of the North (1922), was an international success and established the model for the documentary film. His later documentaries include Moana (1926), Tabu (1931), Man of Aran (1934), The Land (1942), and Louisiana Story (1948)
Saadia ben Joseph
Arabic Sad ibn Ysuf al-Fayym born 882, Dilaz, in al-Fayym, Egypt died September 942, Sura, Babylonia Egyptian-Babylonian Jewish philosopher and polemicist. He left Egypt 905 and eventually settled in Babylonia, where he headed the rabbinic Academy of Sura. He wrote a Hebrew-Arabic dictionary and translated much of the Old Testament into Arabic. In 935 he produced his greatest work, The Book of Beliefs and Opinions, the objective of which was the harmonization of revelation and reason. The introduction refutes skepticism and establishes the foundations of human knowledge. The first chapter seeks to establish creation ex nihilo (out of nothing) in order to ascertain the existence of a Creator-God. Saadia then discusses God's uniqueness, justice, revelation, free will, and other doctrines accepted both by Judaism and by the Mutazil sect of Islam (see Mutazilah). The second part of the book deals with the essence of the soul and eschatological problems and presents guidelines for ethical living
Saint Joseph
A city of northwest Missouri on the Missouri River north-northwest of Kansas City. Laid out in 1843 on the site of a trading post founded in 1826, it became the eastern terminus of the Pony Express in 1860. Population: 71,852. flourished 1st century AD, Nazareth, Galilee region of Palestine; principle feast day March 19; Feast of St. Joseph the Worker May 1 In the New Testament, the husband of Mary and the earthly father of Jesus. Descended from the house of David, he was a carpenter in Nazareth. Betrothed to Mary when he found her already pregnant, an angel appeared to him in a vision and told him the expected child was the son of God. He and Mary journeyed to Bethlehem to be counted in the Roman census, and while they were there the child was born. The last mention of Joseph occurs in the Gospel of Luke, when he and Mary take the 12-year-old Jesus to Jerusalem
Saint Joseph River
A river, about 338 km (210 mi) long, of southwest Michigan and northwest Indiana flowing generally west, south, west, and northwest into Lake Michigan
Saint Joseph of Arimathea
in the New Testament of the Bible, a rich follower of Jesus who asked to be given Jesus's dead body so that he could bury it in the tomb that he had built for himself. There is also an old story that he brought the Holy Grail (=the cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper) to England and built the first Christian church in England at Glastonbury
Sidney Joseph Perelman
born Feb. 1, 1904, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S. died Oct. 17, 1979, New York, N.Y. U.S. humorist. Perelman attended Brown University and soon began writing screenplays for early Marx Brothers films such as Monkey Business (1931) and Horse Feathers (1932). A master of wordplay, he regularly contributed essays to The New Yorker; many were collected in books such as Westward Ha! (1948) and The Road to Miltown (1957). He collaborated with Kurt Weill on the musical One Touch of Venus (1943). His later screenplays include Around the World in 80 Days (1956, Academy Award)
Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott
born March 12, 1821, St. Andrews, Lower Canada died Oct. 30, 1893, Montreal, Que., Can. Canadian prime minister (1891-92). Educated at McGill University in Montreal, he became a lawyer in 1847 and was made queen's counsel in 1862. He was dean of McGill University law school from 1855 to 1880. After serving in the legislative assembly (1857-74, 1880-87), he was appointed to the Senate and became government leader. Upon the death of John Macdonald, he became the compromise choice for prime minister. Ill health forced his resignation in 1892
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain
born Oct. 16, 1863, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng. died March 16, 1937, London British statesman. Son of Joseph Chamberlain and half brother of Neville Chamberlain, he entered the House of Commons in 1892. He held a variety of posts, including chancellor of the Exchequer (1903-05, 1919-21) and secretary of state for India (1915-17). As foreign secretary (1924-29), he helped bring about the Locarno Pact, intended to secure peace in western Europe. For that accomplishment, he shared the 1925 Nobel Prize for Peace with Charles Dawes
Sir Joseph Banks
born , Feb. 13, 1743, London, Eng. died June 19, 1820, Isleworth, London British explorer and naturalist. After studying at Oxford, Banks inherited a fortune that allowed him to travel extensively, collecting plant and natural history specimens. He outfitted and accompanied James Cook's voyage around the world (1768-71). Particularly interested in economic plants and their introduction from one country to another, he was the first to suggest the identity of the wheat rust and barberry fungus (1805); he was also the first to show that marsupial mammals are more primitive than placental mammals. He served as president of the Royal Society from 1778 to 1820, and, as unofficial director of Kew Gardens, he transformed it into a major botanical institution. His herbarium, one of the most important in existence, and his library, a major collection of works on natural history, are now at the British Museum
Sir Joseph John Thomson
born Dec. 18, 1856, Cheetham Hill, near Manchester, Eng. died Aug. 30, 1940, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire English physicist. Educated at the University of Cambridge, he taught there at the Cavendish Laboratory (1884-1918), which he developed into a world-renowned institution, and was master of Trinity College (1918-40). In 1897 he showed that cathode rays are rapidly moving particles, and, by measuring their displacement by electric and magnetic fields, he determined that these particles were nearly 2,000 times less massive than the lightest known atomic particle. Originally called corpuscles by Thomson, the particles are now known as electrons. His discovery helped revolutionize the knowledge of atomic structure. In 1903 he suggested a discontinuous theory of light, foreshadowing Albert Einstein's later theory of photons. He later discovered isotopes and invented mass spectrometry. In 1906 Thomson received a Nobel Prize for his research into the electrical conductivity of gases. Throughout his life he was noted as an outstanding teacher, and seven of his assistants also became Nobel laureates
Sir Joseph Swan
born Oct. 31, 1828, Sunderland, Durham, Eng. died May 27, 1914, Warlingham, Surrey English physicist and chemist. By 1871 he had invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography. He had already produced an early electric lightbulb (1860), and in 1880, independently of Thomas Alva Edison, he produced a carbon-filament incandescent electric lamp. He also patented a process for squeezing nitrocellulose through holes to form fibres, a process that became widely employed in the textile industry
Sir Joseph Whitworth
born Dec. 21, 1803, Stockport, Cheshire, Eng. died Jan. 22, 1887, Monte-Carlo, Monaco British mechanical engineer. Working for Henry Maudslay, he devised a scraping technique for making a true plane surface. He followed this with a measuring machine and a system of accurate dimensional standards or master gauges to go with it, and screws with standardized threads (1841), among other innovations. His machine tools became internationally known for their accuracy and quality
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
born Oct. 31, 1828, Sunderland, Durham, Eng. died May 27, 1914, Warlingham, Surrey English physicist and chemist. By 1871 he had invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography. He had already produced an early electric lightbulb (1860), and in 1880, independently of Thomas Alva Edison, he produced a carbon-filament incandescent electric lamp. He also patented a process for squeezing nitrocellulose through holes to form fibres, a process that became widely employed in the textile industry
Thomas Joseph Pendergast
born July 22, 1872, St. Joseph, Mo., U.S. died Jan. 26, 1945, Kansas City, Mo. U.S. politician. He was active in municipal politics in Kansas City, Mo., and became the political boss of the city's Democrats by 1916. His political machine dominated city and state politics for almost 25 years and influenced national Democratic conventions. He helped Harry S. Truman in his early political career. Attacked by opponents for allowing corrupt practices in Kansas City, he was convicted of income-tax evasion in 1939 and served one year in prison
Tomb of Joseph
region in Shechem where legend claims that Joseph is buried
William ; and Barbera Joseph Hanna
born July 14, 1910, Melrose, N.M., U.S. died March 22, 2001, Hollywood, Calif. born March 24, 1911, New York, N.Y. U.S. animators. Both Hanna and Barbera joined MGM in 1937 and there collaborated to create the cartoon characters Tom and Jerry. From 1940 to 1957 they produced over 200 Tom and Jerry cartoons, 7 of which won Academy Awards. They founded Hanna-Barbera Productions in 1957 and collaborated on such popular television cartoon series as The Flintstones, Yogi Bear, and Huckleberry Hound
William Denby; and Barbera Joseph Roland Hanna
born July 14, 1910, Melrose, N.M., U.S. died March 22, 2001, Hollywood, Calif. born March 24, 1911, New York, N.Y. U.S. animators. Both Hanna and Barbera joined MGM in 1937 and there collaborated to create the cartoon characters Tom and Jerry. From 1940 to 1957 they produced over 200 Tom and Jerry cartoons, 7 of which won Academy Awards. They founded Hanna-Barbera Productions in 1957 and collaborated on such popular television cartoon series as The Flintstones, Yogi Bear, and Huckleberry Hound
William Joseph 1st Viscount Slim of Yarralumla and Bishopston Slim
born , Aug. 6, 1891, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng. died Dec. 14, 1970, London British general. He served with the British army in World War I and with the Indian army from 1920. In World War II he commanded Indian troops in East Africa and the Middle East (1940-41). As commander of the 1st Burma Corps (1942), he led a 900-mi (1,450-km) retreat from superior Japanese forces in Burma to India. In 1944 he led forces to repel a Japanese invasion of northern India; in 1945 he retook Burma from the Japanese. Promoted to field marshal (1948), he served as chief of the Imperial General Staff (1948-52) and later as governor-general of Australia (1953-60)
William Joseph Donovan
{i} (1883-1959) United States military officer and attorney, founder and director of the OSS from 1942 to 1945 (was known as "Wild Bill")
William Joseph Hardee
born Oct. 12, 1815, near Savannah, Ga., U.S. died Nov. 6, 1873, Whytheville, Va. U.S. military leader. A graduate of West Point (1838), he wrote Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics (1855), a popular manual that was later used by both sides in the American Civil War. When Georgia seceded in 1861, Hardee resigned his commission and assumed command of Confederate forces in northeastern Arkansas, later demonstrating his military skills at the Battles of Shiloh and Chattanooga. As commander of the military department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, he attempted to halt the march of William T. Sherman across Georgia. After the war he retired to his plantation
William Joseph Jr. Brennan
born April 25, 1906, Newark, N.J., U.S. died July 24, 1997, Arlington, Va. U.S. jurist. He studied under Felix Frankfurter at Harvard Law School, receiving his degree in 1931. He practiced labour law in New Jersey until 1949, when he was appointed to the state Superior Court. He rose through the ranks of the New Jersey courts, where he was noted for his administrative skill. Although a Democrat, he was named to the Supreme Court of the United States by Republican Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956. He came to be regarded as one of the most influential jurists in its history. A liberal constructionist and an articulate defender of the Bill of Rights, he is perhaps best remembered for his role in a series of obscenity cases, beginning with Roth v. United States (1957), many of which broadened the protection accorded to publishers while seeking to balance individual freedoms with the interests of the community. In New York Times v. Sullivan (1964), he wrote that even false statements about public officials are protected under the 1st and 14th Amendments unless "actual malice" can be demonstrated. He also wrote the majority opinion in Baker v. Carr (1962). He opposed capital punishment and supported abortion rights, affirmative action, and school desegregation. He served until 1990; his decisions numbered more than 1,350
and Scaliger Joseph Justus Scaliger, Julius Caesar
born April 23, 1484, Riva, Republic of Venice died Oct. 21, 1558, Agen, France born Aug. 5, 1540, Agen, France died Jan. 21, 1609, Leiden, Holland Classical scholars. Julius worked in botany, zoology, and grammar but was chiefly interested in developing an understanding and critical evaluation of the ancients. His most widely read book was his Poetics (1561), in which Greco-Roman rhetoric and poetics are used as a foundation for literary criticism. His son Joseph, a precocious student of language, studied in France, Germany, and Italy and taught in France before he was called to the University of Leiden, where he became known as the most erudite scholar of his time. His major works are the Study on the Improvement of Time (1583) and Thesaurus of Time (1609), which brought order to ancient chronology
joseph

    Расстановка переносов

    Jo·seph

    Турецкое произношение

    cōsıf

    Произношение

    /ˈʤōsəf/ /ˈʤoʊsəf/

    Этимология

    [ 'jO-z&f also -s& ] (noun.) Old Testament Hebrew יוֹסֵף (Yosef, “(God) shall add”); a son of Jacob.

    Слово дня

    gowpen
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