A way of saying that two things are treated the same according to a definition of equality In sensemaking, notions of equivalence are important for governing retrieval based on assumed similarity of meaning For example, a matcher may treat two words as equivalent if they are synonyms The notion of equivalence can be applied to any kind of representation, including terms, phrases and subgraphs Two phrases may be equivalent if they express the same relationships between words that are synonyms See term-equivalence dictionary and subgraph equivalence
the recognizable identity of the reality experienced and symbolized on various levels of differentiation
In the context of text processing, the process or result of establishing whether two text elements are identical in some respect
In the context of text processing, the process or result of establishing whether two text elements are identical in some respect Different types of equivalence can be employed For example, a form of strong equivalence is identity of code element values; this is very important for performing binary operations on text, such as a binary sort of a symbol table More often, however, weak equivalence is what is desired by users of text; e g , the English words cat and Cat are usually considered equivalent, even though they would not be equivalent in terms of code elements, i e , strongly equivalent Many different forms of weak equivalence may be desired by a user
A truth function that returns truth when its two arguments have the same truth-value, and false otherwise Also the connective denoting this function; also the compound proposition built from this connective Syntactically: the two propositions imply one another Semantically: they have the same models Also called a biconditional, or biconditional statement
If there is equivalence between two things, they have the same use, function, size, or value. the equivalence of science and rationality
The quantity of the combining power of an atom, expressed in hydrogen units; the number of hydrogen atoms can combine with, or be exchanged for; valency
The condition of being equivalent or equal; equality of worth, value, signification, or force; as, an equivalence of definitions
a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced; "on a par with the best"
A term applied by the Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures WTO Member countries shall accord acceptance to the SPS measures of other countries (even if those measures differ from their own or from those used by other Member countries trading in the same product) if the exporting country demonstrates to the importing country that its measures achieve the importer's appropriate level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection
the property of a map projection to represent all areas in true proportion to one another
the comparability of two or more parallel measures that have been designed to assess the same aspect of teaching and to yield similar evaluation results regardless of the measure used or the scoring/rating procedure applied (e g , two different social studies textbook chapters to be analyzed as part of a semi-structured interview; two essay questions on teaching the same content area in math, but to different types of student groups) See Comparability
Two nodes are equivalent if they have the same node type and same node name Also, if the nodes contain data, that must be the same Finally, if the nodes have attributes then collection of attribute names must be the same and the attributes corresponding by name must be equivalent as nodes Two nodes are deeply equivalent if they are equivalent, the child node lists are equivalent are equivalent as NodeList objects, and the pairs of equivalent attributes must in fact be deeply equivalent Two NodeList objects are equivalent if they have the same length, and the nodes corresponding by index are deeply equivalent Two NamedNodeMap objects are equivalent if they are have the same length, they have same collection of names, and the nodes corresponding by name in the maps are deeply equivalent Two DocumentType nodes are equivalent if they are equivalent as nodes, have the same names, and have equivalent entities and attributes NamedNodeMap objects
Any one of the subsets into which an equivalence relation partitions a set, each of these subsets containing all the elements of the set that are equivalent under the equivalence relation
(for an equivalence predicate) A set of objects, or potential objects, that are all the same under the specified equivalence predicate and different under that predicate from all objects not in the equivalence class See also "Tables" on page 122
A grouping of characters or character strings that are considered equal for purposes of collation For example, many languages place an uppercase character in the same equivalence class as its lowercase form, but some languages distinguish between accented and unaccented character forms for the purpose of collation
(1) A grouping of characters that are considered equal for the purpose of collation; for example, many languages place an uppercase character in the same equivalence class as its lowercase form, but some languages distinguish between accented and unaccented character forms for the purpose of collation IBM (2) A set of collating elements with the same primary collation weight Elements in an equivalence class are typically elements that naturally group together, such as all accented letters based on the same base letter The collation order of elements within an equivalence class is determined by the weights assigned on any subsequent levels after the primary weight X/Open
Fundamental principle of physics that in its weak form states that gravitational (see gravitation) and inertial (see inertia) masses are the same. Albert Einstein's stronger version states that gravitation and acceleration are indistinguishable. It implies that the effect of gravity is removed in a suitably accelerated reference frame, such as an elevator with its cable cut, in which a person would experience free fall
A reflexive, symmetric, and transitive relationship between elements of a set, such as congruence for the set of all triangles in a plane. In mathematics, a generalization of the idea of equality between elements of a set. All equivalence relations (e.g., that symbolized by the equals sign) obey three conditions: reflexivity (every element is in the relation to itself), symmetry (element A has the same relation to element B that B has to A), and transitivity (see transitive law). Congruence of triangles is an equivalence relation in geometry. Members of a set are said to be in the same equivalence class if they have an equivalence relation
A relation between two matrices of the same size, such that every row of one matrix is a linear combination of the rows of the other matrix, and vice versa. It is an equivalence relation
In linear algebra, two matrices are row equivalent if one can be changed to the other by a sequence of elementary row operations. Alternatively, two m × n matrices are row equivalent if and only if they have the same row space. The concept is most commonly applied to matrices that represent systems of linear equations, in which case two matrices are row equivalent if and only if the corresponding systems have the same information content
(physics) the principle that an observer has no way of distinguishing whether his laboratory is in a uniform gravitational field or is in an accelerated frame of reference