A test that uses the chi-square statistic to test the fit between a theoretical frequency distribution and a frequency distribution of observed data for which each observation may fall into one of several classes
the president of North Vietnam during the first part of the Vietnam War until his death (1892-1969). orig. Nguyen Sinh Cung born May 19, 1890, Hoang Tru, Viet. died Sept. 2, 1969, Hanoi President (1945-69) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Son of a poor scholar, he was brought up in a rural village. In 1911 he found work on a French steamer and traveled the world, then spent six years in France, where he became a socialist. In 1923 he went to the Soviet Union; the next year he went to China, where he started organizing exiled Vietnamese. He founded the Indochina Communist Party in 1930 and its successor, the Viet Minh, in 1941. In 1945 Japan overran Indochina, overthrowing its French colonial rulers; when the Japanese surrendered to the Allies six months later, Ho and his Viet Minh forces seized the opportunity, occupied Hanoi, and proclaimed Vietnamese independence. France refused to relinquish its former colony, and the First Indochina War broke out in 1946. Ho's forces defeated the French in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu, after which the country was partitioned into North and South Vietnam. Ho, who ruled in the north, was soon embroiled with the U.S.-backed regime of Ngo Dinh Diem in the south in what became known as the Vietnam War; North Vietnamese forces prevailed over the south six years after Ho's death
a city in the southern part of Vietnam. It was formerly known as Saigon, and was the capital of South Vietnam when the country was divided. formerly Saigon City (pop., 1999 est.: 4,549,000), southern Vietnam. It lies along the Saigon River north of the Mekong River delta. The Vietnamese first entered the region, then part of the kingdom of Cambodia, in the 17th century. In 1862 the area, including the town, was ceded to France. After World War II Vietnam declared its independence, but French troops seized control and the First Indochina War began. The Geneva conference in 1954 divided the country, and Saigon became the capital of South Vietnam. In the Vietnam War, it was the headquarters for U.S. military operations; it was captured by North Vietnamese troops in 1975 and renamed for Ho Chi Minh. Rebuilding since the war has promoted its commercial importance
Former trail system, extending from northern Vietnam to southern Vietnam. It was opened in 1959 and used by North Vietnamese troops in the Vietnam War as the major military supply route. Starting south of Hanoi, the main trail traversed Laos and Cambodia on its way to South Vietnam and required more than a month's march to travel. With underground support facilities, including hospitals and weapons caches, it was the main route for the invasion of South Vietnam in 1975
Chinese taijiquan or t'ai-chi-ch'üan Ancient Chinese form of exercise or of attack and defense. As exercise, it is designed to provide relaxation in the process of body conditioning, which it accomplishes partly by harmonizing the principles of yin-yang. It employs flowing, deliberate movements with carefully prescribed stances and positions. As a mode of attack and defense, it resembles kung fu and is properly considered a martial art. Dating to the 3rd century AD, Tai Chi Chuan consists of two major schools, the Wu and the Yang. Depending on the school, the number of exercises varies from 24 to more than 100
(n ) A high-speed time-division-multiplexed digital bus between a SPARCstationTM system and the SpeakerBox CHI is capable of simultaneous input and output of 16-bit stereo audio at rates up to 48 KHz, the rate used by digital audio tape (DAT)
"Spirit," "air," "breath," or "spirit energy" A biophysical energy generated through breathing techniques studied in kung fu Ideally, chi can infuse a person with tremendous vitality and make him or or her extremely powerful in action, much moreso than power developed through the muscular system alone
Chi (Ki in Japanese) is theChinese word for energy developed and concentrated in the hara Ki is a concept that refers to life energy It is thought that one can cultivate healthy, powerful ki through proper breathing and proper living in general In the martial arts, one should try to focus their ki into their techniques
Breath of Life The primordial energy which is the basis for the universe and everything in it It is the matrix out of which matter and energy are formed, and is expressed as the life force in all living things
"Spirit," "air," "breath," or "spirit energy " A biophysical energy generated through breathing techniques studied in kung fu Ideally, chi can infuse a person with tremendous vitality and make him or or her extremely powerful in action, much moreso than power developed through the muscular system alone
(Chinese, "breath or energy") Subtle energy or vitalforce In Taoism, chi is the cosmic energy that permeates all things Within the human body, the chi is seen as the vital force of the body and is closely associated with the breath During the act of breathing, in addition to oxygenating the blood with the outer breath (wai chi), one breathes in with the inner breath (nei chi) the surrounding cosmic energy to resupply the inner chi or life force of the body
the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things; in traditional Chinese medicine the balance of negative and positive forms in the body is believed to be essential for good health
The 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. See table at alphabet. The vital force believed in Taoism and other Chinese thought to be inherent in all things. The unimpeded circulation of chi and a balance of its negative and positive forms in the body are held to be essential to good health in traditional Chinese medicine. Chi lin Chi nan Dian Chi Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh Trail Ch'iu Ch'u chi She Chi Tai Chi Chuan t'ai chi ch'üan
(Computer-Human Interaction) An interdisciplinary filed combining education, information science, graphic art, industrial design, mechanical engineering, psychology, artificial intelligence etc to understand how human beings process information so that products can better be designed to enhance useability
You know how sometimes you walk into a room, like the lobby of an expensive hotel, for instance, and there's lots of light, space, and maybe some nice paintings and furniture? Compare the feeling of that room to that of a cubicle in a cinderblock, flourescent-lit basement office Chi is the vital energy of the universe It is not present in most cubicles
It is believed that a form of energy circulates through the Universe On its path it travels through everything, including people Many martial arts believe that if this power can be directed, it can be used to put power into techniques It is also believed that if this energy's path through the body is blocked, illness will follow The arts of Acupressure and Acupuncture attempt to remove blockages from the meridians (pathways the energy uses to travel through the body) to ensure good health The Japanese term for Chi is Ki
The life force or essence that is possessed by all living things Martial artists and swordsmen believe that they can harness and control their chi, using it to produce many powerful techniques and effects
A statistic that helps determine whether the pattern of frequencies found in data assigned to categories is likely due to chance or is atypical Also used to compare data with a model to determine whether the data's fit is within the typical range of sampling and chance error Also, used to combined the results of independently conducted studies to determine overall statistical significance
Rather than measuring the value of each of a set of items, a calculated value of chi-square compares the frequencies of various kinds (or categories) of items in a random sample to the frequencies that are expected if the population frequencies are as hypothesized by the investigator Chi-square is often used to assess the "goodness of fit" between an obtained set of frequencies in a random sample and what is expected under a given statistical hypothesis For example, chi-square can be used to determine if there is reason to reject the statistical hypothesis that the frequencies in a random sample are as expected when the items are from a normal distribution
Represented by the symbol χ2; statistical test used to determine if differences among nominal, or categorical, level data are statistically significant; examines the observed frequencies in comparison to the expected frequencies to determine if the categorical differences that occurred are the same as would occur by chance
A test performed on a two-way frequency table to test whether two variables can be considered statistically independent It is calculated in the Crosstabulation and Contingency Table Statlets In calculating the chi-square test, the observed frequency in each cell is compared to the frequency which would be expected if the row and column classifications were independent If the calculated statistic is large (i e , if its P value is less than a predetermined significance level such as 05), then the null hypothesis of independence must be rejected The chi-square test is valid only if the expected frequency in each cell is relatively large If any frequency is less than 5, a warning is displayed If the two-way table contains exactly 2 rows and 2 columns and the total count in the table does not exceed 100, Fisher's exact test is also performed
The chi-square test is performed on a two-way frequency table to test whether two variables can be considered statistically independent It is calculated in the Crosstabulation and Contingency Table statlets In calculating the chi-square test, the observed frequency in each cell is compared to the frequency which would be expected if the row and column classifications were independent If the calculated statistic is large (i e , if its P value is less than a predetermined significance level such as 05), then the null hypothesis of independence must be rejected The chi-square test is valid only if the expected frequency in each cell is relatively large If any frequency is less than 5, a warning is displayed If the two-way table contains exactly 2 rows and 2 columns and the total count in the table does not exceed 100, Fisher's exact test is also performed
A test that uses the chi-square statistic to test the fit between a theoretical frequency distribution and a frequency distribution of observed data for which each observation may fall into one of several classes
A statistical significance test based on frequency of occurrence; it is applicable both to qualitative attributes and quantitative variables Among its many uses, the most common are test of hypothesized probabilities or probability distributions (goodness of fit), statistical dependence or independence (association), and common population (homogeneity)
A test that uses the chi-square statistic to test the fit between a theoretical frequency distribution and a frequency distribution of observed data, measuring correlation
A statistic calculated in the Crosstabulation and Contingency Table statlets It ranges from -1 to +1 and is based on the number of concordant and discordant pairs of observations A concordant pair is one is which the two variables (row and column) have the same relative ranking (greater than or less than) A discordant pair is one in which the two variables have the opposite ranking Both variables must be ordinal No correction is made for ties
A statistical test for comparing the frequency distributions observed in a sample of observations with what would be expected under the null hypothesis This test is often used for 2x2 tables for evaluating the association of the two variables
A statistical measure of goodness of fit, independence, or homogeneity of a population The Chi-square test can be used to determine whether a sample of data was drawn from a normally distributed population by comparing the sample's frequency distribution with the normal distribution It can also be used to determine whether two variables are independent by comparing their observed joint occurrence with their expected joint occurrence, assuming independence Finally, it can be used to determine whether or not categories of a single variable are represented in the same proportions in two or more populations
A statistic that assesses how well a model fits the data In data mining, it is most commonly used to find homogeneous subsets for fitting categorical trees as in CHAID
A statistical test used most often by geneticists to ascertain whether experimental data provide significant evidence for linkage between two loci (see Chapter 9)
A Chinese Taoist martial art discipline of meditation in movement using slow, controlled deep breathing techniques together with slow graceful physical movements
Also Known as TAI CHI CH’UAN, and is part of the Tai Chi Ch’uan System, which, originally, was a formidable martial art operating on several levels of awareness It embodies Taoist Philosophy, and accordingly is extremely beneficial to good health Tai Chi is a comprehensive series of gentle physical movements, and breathing techniques, with mental and spiritual intent, which allows you to experience a meditative state It is calming and rejuvenating, and assists the body and mind to maintain balance, and exercises the body, mind and spirit, together with the internal organs It includes both the inner and outer expressions of the body and mind Here we are able to balance the Yin and Yang life force energy of Chi In this way this system develops the ability to balance the “yielding and attacking” aspects in martial art combat It has also been such a major influence in all the martial arts we see today SEE CHI KUNG
(tai chi chuan, Tai Ji, tai ji chuan, Tai Ji Juan, tai ji quan, Taiqi): Variation of self-healing Tai chi is an ancient, yoga-like Chinese system of ballet-like exercises designed for health, self-defense, and spiritual development Practicing tai chi supposedly facilitates the flow of chi ("life energy") through the body by dissolving blockages both within the body and between the body and the environment Traditional tai chi prescribes about 108 to 128 postures, including repetitions The difficulty lies in concatenating the postures into circular movements Quan means "boxing "
This Chinese Taoist martial art form combines mental concentration, coordinated breathing and slow, graceful body movements to increase well-being, lessen stress, and strengthen the body
Tai Chi is an ancient martial arts exercise The gentle movements and postures are designed to achieve a harmonious flow of energy (chi) in the body The movements are coordinated with breathing patterns and performed slowly so that the practitioner can focus on changes in balance, flexibility, and muscle tension This can improve balance, stability, flexibility, and skill and promote a sense of relaxation, wellbeing and improved health
Ancient yoga-like system originating of exercises in China designed for health, self-defense, and spiritual development that facilitates the flow of chi ("life energy") through the body
The workings of the Yin and the Yang Which is represented as a circle divided between a dark and a light half, the Taiji symbol represents two mutually complementary forces in nature: Yin, the force characterized as dark, cold, stillness, passiveness and potential; and Yang, the force characterized as light, warmth, action, aggressiveness and expression