U.S. African American revolutionary party founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale (b. 1936) in Oakland, Calif. Its original purpose was to protect African Americans from acts of police brutality. Eventually the Panthers developed into a Marxist revolutionary group that called for the arming of African Americans, their exemption from the draft, the release of all African American prisoners, and payment of compensation to African Americans for centuries of exploitation by white Americans. By the late 1960s it had more than 2,000 members, with chapters in several major cities; an early spokesman was Eldridge Cleaver (1935-98). Conflicts with police in the late 1960s and early '70s led to shoot-outs in California, New York, and Chicago, one of which resulted in Newton's imprisonment for the murder of a police officer. Though some members of the party were guilty of criminal acts, the entire group was subjected to violent attacks by police and harassment by other government agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Police activities in dealing with the Panthers were later the subject of congressional investigations. By the mid-1970s, having lost many members and having fallen out of favour with African American leaders, the party turned to providing social services in African American neighbourhoods. By the early 1980s it had effectively disbanded
Japan's military after World War II. In Article 9 of Japan's postwar constitution, the Japanese renounced war and pledged never to maintain land, sea, or air forces. The rearming of Japan in the 1950s was therefore cast in terms of self-defense. In 1950 a small military force called the National Police Reserve was created; this became the National Safety Force in 1952 and the Self-Defense Force in 1954. Ostensibly it was never to be used outside Japan or its waters; consequently, Self-Defense Force participation in UN peacekeeping missions or relief work has sparked vigorous debate in Japan and abroad, especially among nations that were victims of Japanese aggression in World War II
In criminal law, an affirmative defense (e.g., to a murder charge) alleging that the defendant used serious force necessarily for self-protection. The claim of self-defense must normally rely on a reasonable belief that the other party intended to inflict great bodily harm or death and that avoidance by retreating was impossible. See also homicide
The protection of one's person or property against some injury attempted by another The law of "self-defense" justifies an act done in the reasonable belief of immediate danger When acting in justifiable self-defense, a person may not be punished criminally nor held responsible for civil damages
(noun) (1) Defense of oneself when physically attacked (2) Defense of what belongs to oneself, as one's works or reputation (3) (Law) The right to protect oneself against violence or threatened violence with whatever force or means are reasonably necessary
The protection of one's person or property against some injury attempted by another The law of "self defense" justifies an act done in the reasonable belief of immediate danger When acting in justifiable self-defense, a person may not be punished criminally nor held responsible for civil damages
a terrorist organization in Colombia formed in 1997 as an umbrella for local and regional paramilitary groups; is financed by earnings from narcotics and serves to protect the economic interests of its members; "the AUC conducted over 800 assassinationsin one year
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