2nd

listen to the pronunciation of 2nd
الإنجليزية - التركية
ikinci
2nd sign
(Bilgisayar) 2nci işaret
tutor to the 2nd year
2 yıl için öğretmen
الإنجليزية - الإنجليزية
Richmond and Kings
Cotton China 14th Ivory Gold Jewelry
coming next after the first in position in space or time or degree or magnitude
BROWN NIKYU
2nd grade
Alternative spelling of second grade
2nd duke of Buckingham
v. orig. George Villiers born Jan. 30, 1628, London, Eng. died April 16, 1687, Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire English politician. Born eight months before the assassination of his father, the 1st duke of Buckingham, he was brought up with the family of Charles I. He fought for Charles II in the English Civil Wars, and after the Restoration in 1660 Buckingham became a leading member of the king's inner circle of ministers, known as the Cabal. Parliament had him dismissed from his posts for alleged Catholic sympathies in 1674
Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl Cornwallis
born Dec. 31, 1738, London, Eng. died Oct. 5, 1805, Ghazipur, India British soldier and statesman. In 1780, during the American Revolution, he was appointed British commander in the American South. He defeated Horatio Gates at Camden, S.C., then marched into Virginia and encamped at Yorktown (see Siege of Yorktown). Trapped and besieged there, he was forced to surrender his army (1781), a defeat that effectively ended military operations in the war. Despite his defeat, he retained esteem in England. As governor-general of India (1786-93, 1805), he introduced legal and administrative reforms; the Cornwallis Code (1793) established a tradition of incorruptible British civil servants. In the third Mysore War he defeated Tippu Sultan in 1792. As viceroy of Ireland (1798-1801), he supported the parliamentary union of Britain and Ireland. He negotiated the Anglo-French Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Reappointed governor-general of India in 1805, he died shortly after his arrival there
Charles Grey 2nd Earl Grey
born March 13, 1764, Falloden, Northumberland, Eng. died July 17, 1845, Howick, Northumberland British politician, leader of the Whig Party, and prime minister (1830-34). Grey entered Parliament in 1786 and soon became prominent among the aristocratic Whigs, led by Charles James Fox, in opposition to William Pitt's conservative government. In 1806 Grey became first lord of the Admiralty in Lord Grenville's government, and, when Fox died the same year, Grey became foreign secretary and leader of the Foxite Whigs. In 1807 the dismissal of the ministry and the loss of his seat for Northumberland because of his Catholic sympathies left Grey with a distaste for office. From 1815 to 1830 he was more patron than leader of the divided Whig opposition. In 1830 he became prime minister with popular backing for parliamentary reform. After considerable debate and conflict, he won adoption of the Reform Bill of 1832
Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend
born April 18, 1675, Raynham Hall, Norfolk, Eng. died June 21, 1738, Raynham British politician. He succeeded to his father's title in 1687, married the sister of Robert Walpole, and served as secretary of state (1714-16). With Walpole, Townshend led the Whig Party and became president of the privy council (1720). Again secretary of state (1721-30), he formed the League of Hanover (1725), which allied Britain, France, and Prussia against Austria and Spain. He resigned when Walpole, by then the dominant minister, opposed an aggressive policy against Austria. Also interested in agricultural reform, Townshend developed the use of turnips in crop rotation, earning the nickname Turnip Townshend
Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend of Rainham
born April 18, 1675, Raynham Hall, Norfolk, Eng. died June 21, 1738, Raynham British politician. He succeeded to his father's title in 1687, married the sister of Robert Walpole, and served as secretary of state (1714-16). With Walpole, Townshend led the Whig Party and became president of the privy council (1720). Again secretary of state (1721-30), he formed the League of Hanover (1725), which allied Britain, France, and Prussia against Austria and Spain. He resigned when Walpole, by then the dominant minister, opposed an aggressive policy against Austria. Also interested in agricultural reform, Townshend developed the use of turnips in crop rotation, earning the nickname Turnip Townshend
Charles Watson-Wentworth 2nd marquess of Rockingham
born May 13, 1730 died July 1, 1782, London, Eng. British politician. From 1751 to 1762 he served as gentleman of the bedchamber for George II and then George III, who appointed him prime minister in 1765. He obtained repeal of the unpopular Stamp Act but agreed to the passage of the Declaratory Act. His ministry collapsed through internal dissension in 1766. He and Edmund Burke led the parliamentary opposition to the ministries in power and spoke in favour of independence for the American colonies. In his brief second ministry (1782), he began peace negotiations with the U.S. and obtained legislative independence for the Irish parliament
François de Lorraine 2nd duke de Guise
born Feb. 24, 1519, Bar, France died Feb. 24, 1563, Orléans French soldier and loyal servant to the French crown, the greatest figure produced by the house of Guise. He fought in Francis I's army and was badly wounded at the siege of Boulogne (1545), earning him the nickname "the Scarred." He led French armies in other victories against the English and the Spanish. On the accession of Francis II (1559), Guise became grand master of the royal household. The Bourbons launched a conspiracy to overthrow the Guises, who learned of the plot and ruthlessly suppressed it (1560). When Catherine de Médicis became regent (1560), she supported the Bourbons (who were leaders of the Huguenot movement) and religious toleration and was against the Guises and Catholic dominance. The first of the resultant Wars of Religion again showed Guise to be an outstanding soldier. He was assassinated by a Huguenot in 1563
Hugh O'Neill 2nd earl of Tyrone
born 1540 died July 20, 1616, Rome, Papal States Irish rebel. Born into the powerful O'Neill family of Ulster, he grew up in London, then returned to Ireland (1568) to assume his grandfather's title of earl of Tyrone. As chieftain of the O'Neills from 1593, he led skirmishes against the English and won the Battle of the Yellow Ford on the River Blackwater, Ulster, which sparked a countrywide revolt (1598). He received aid and troops from Spain (1601) but was defeated by the English at Kinsale and forced to surrender (1603). In 1607 he fled with about 100 chieftains and lived in Rome the rest of his life. The so-called "flight of the earls" brought an end to Gaelic Ulster, and the province was rapidly Anglicized
John Wilmot 2nd earl of Rochester
born April 10, 1647, Ditchley Manor House, Oxfordshire, Eng. died July 26, 1680, Woodstock, Oxfordshire English poet and wit. The most notorious debauchee of the Restoration court, Rochester was also its best poet and one of the most original and powerful English satirists. A Satyr Against Mankind (1675) is a scathing denunciation of rationalism and optimism that contrasts human perfidy with animal wisdom, and "History of Insipids" (1676) is a devastating attack on the government of Charles II. In 1680 he became ill, experienced a religious conversion, and recanted his past, ordering "all his profane and lewd writings" burned. His single dramatic work is Valentinian (1685)
Robert Banks Jenkinson 2nd earl of Liverpool
born June 7, 1770, London, Eng. died Dec. 4, 1828, Fife House, Whitehall, London British prime minister (1812-27). He entered the House of Commons in 1790 and became a leading Tory, serving as foreign secretary (1801-04), home secretary (1804-06, 1807-09), and secretary for war and the colonies (1809-12). The War of 1812 with the U.S. and the final campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars were fought during his premiership. He urged abolition of the slave trade at the Congress of Vienna (1814-15). Although sometimes overshadowed by his colleagues and by the duke of Wellington's military prowess, he conducted a sound administration
Robert Devereux 2nd earl of Essex
born Nov. 10, 1567, Netherwood, Herefordshire, Eng. died Feb. 25, 1601, London English soldier and courtier. He was the son of the 1st earl of Essex. As a young man, he became the aging Elizabeth I's favorite, though their relationship was stormy. In 1591-92 he commanded the English force in France that helped Henry IV fight the French Roman Catholics, and in 1596 he commanded forces in the sack of Cádiz. In 1599 Elizabeth sent him to Ireland as lord lieutenant, where he fought an unsuccessful campaign against Irish rebels and concluded an unfavorable truce, leading Elizabeth to deprive him of his offices in 1600. In 1601 he made an unsuccessful attempt to raise the populace of London in revolt against Elizabeth; he was captured, tried by his former mentor Francis Bacon, and beheaded
Robert Spencer 2nd earl of Sunderland
born Sept. 5, 1641, Paris, France died Sept. 28, 1702, Althorp, Northamptonshire, Eng. English statesman and chief adviser in the reigns of Charles II, James II, and William III. After a period in diplomatic service, he twice served as secretary of state (1679-81, 1683) and became the chief architect of Charles's pro-French foreign policy. He converted to Roman Catholicism to maintain his influence in James's reign. After William became king, Sunderland renounced his Catholicism and became the principal intermediary between the king and Parliament. He was appointed lord chamberlain in 1697, but Whig opposition soon forced him from office
Sir Charles Wentworth 2nd Baronet Dilke
born Sept. 4, 1843, London, Eng. died Jan. 26, 1911, London British politician. He was elected to Parliament in 1868, first as an extremist then as a moderate. In 1882 he became a member of William E. Gladstone's cabinet and was seen as a future prime minister. He was ruined at the height of his career when he was cited as a corespondent in a sensational divorce suit in 1886. Dilke denied the woman's story, and the accumulated evidence showed that much of it was a fabrication. He returned to the House of Commons (1892-1911), where he promoted progressive labor legislation and gained a reputation as a military expert
Sir Robert 2nd Baronet Peel
born Feb. 5, 1788, Bury, Lancashire, Eng. died July 2, 1850, London British prime minister (1834-35, 1841-46) and principal founder of the Conservative Party. A member of Parliament from 1809, Peel served as chief secretary for Ireland (1812-18) and resisted efforts to admit Catholics to Parliament. As home secretary (1822-27, 1828-30), he reorganized England's criminal code. He established London's first disciplined police force, whose members were nicknamed after him "bobbies" or "peelers." After a brief first term as prime minister, Peel led the newly formed Conservative Party to a strong victory in the 1841 elections and became prime minister again. He imposed an income tax, reorganized the Bank of England, and initiated reforms in Ireland. Favouring reduced tariffs on imports, he repealed the Corn Laws, which caused his government to fall, but he continued to support free-trade principles in Parliament. He was the chief architect of the mid-Victorian age of stability and prosperity that he did not live to see
Sir Samuel 2nd Baronet Hoare
also called (from 1944) Viscount Templewood (of Chelsea) born Feb. 24, 1880, London, Eng. died May 7, 1959, London British statesman. As secretary of state for India (1931-35), he had the immense task of developing and defending in debate the new Indian constitution and was a chief architect of the Government of India Act (1935). He became foreign secretary (1935) but was forced to resign for his role in developing the unpopular Hoare-Laval Pact. As home secretary (1937-39), he helped develop the Munich agreement, which marked him as an appeaser and damaged his reputation. In World War II he served as ambassador to Spain (1940-44)
Sir Samuel John Gurney 2nd Baronet Hoare
also called (from 1944) Viscount Templewood (of Chelsea) born Feb. 24, 1880, London, Eng. died May 7, 1959, London British statesman. As secretary of state for India (1931-35), he had the immense task of developing and defending in debate the new Indian constitution and was a chief architect of the Government of India Act (1935). He became foreign secretary (1935) but was forced to resign for his role in developing the unpopular Hoare-Laval Pact. As home secretary (1937-39), he helped develop the Munich agreement, which marked him as an appeaser and damaged his reputation. In World War II he served as ambassador to Spain (1940-44)
Thomas 2nd earl of Limerick Dongan
born 1634, Castletown, County Kildare, Ire. died Dec. 14, 1715, London, Eng. British colonial governor of New York. A member of an Irish royalist family, he was exiled to France after the English Civil Wars. Recalled to England in 1677, he served as lieutenant governor of Tangiers from 1678 to 1680. As governor of New York (1682-88), he organized the colony's first representative assembly, issued a "Charter of Liberties" in 1683, and pursued a policy of cooperation with the Iroquois Confederacy against the French. He returned to England in 1691
Thomas Howard 2nd duke of Norfolk
born 1443 died May 21, 1524, Framlingham, Suffolk, Eng. English noble prominent in the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Son of the 1st duke of Norfolk, he was made steward of the royal household and created earl of Surrey in 1483. While fighting for Richard III, he was taken prisoner (and his father killed) in the Battle of Bosworth Field. After his release in 1489, he commanded the defense of the Scottish borders and later defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden. Norfolk later served as lord treasurer and a privy councillor, and he helped arrange the marriage of Margaret Tudor to James IV of Scotland. In 1520 he was guardian of England during Henry VIII's absence in France
William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne
born March 15, 1779, London, Eng. died Nov. 24, 1848, Brocket, near Hatfield, Hertfordshire British prime minister (1834, 1835-41). A lawyer, he entered the House of Commons in 1806 and the House of Lords in 1829. Although a Whig, he served in Tory governments as chief secretary for Ireland (1827-28) and advocated political rights for Roman Catholics. He served as home secretary (1830-34) in Earl Grey's Whig government, reluctantly supporting the Reform Bill of 1832. As prime minister (1834), he gained the support of Whigs and moderate Tories and opposed further parliamentary reform and efforts to repeal the Corn Laws. In his second administration (1835-41), he became the young Queen Victoria's valued chief political adviser. His firm stand in foreign policy averted war with France over Syria (1840). His wife, Lady Caroline Lamb (1785-1828), was a minor novelist, famous for her affair with Lord Byron in 1812-13
William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne of Kilmore
born March 15, 1779, London, Eng. died Nov. 24, 1848, Brocket, near Hatfield, Hertfordshire British prime minister (1834, 1835-41). A lawyer, he entered the House of Commons in 1806 and the House of Lords in 1829. Although a Whig, he served in Tory governments as chief secretary for Ireland (1827-28) and advocated political rights for Roman Catholics. He served as home secretary (1830-34) in Earl Grey's Whig government, reluctantly supporting the Reform Bill of 1832. As prime minister (1834), he gained the support of Whigs and moderate Tories and opposed further parliamentary reform and efforts to repeal the Corn Laws. In his second administration (1835-41), he became the young Queen Victoria's valued chief political adviser. His firm stand in foreign policy averted war with France over Syria (1840). His wife, Lady Caroline Lamb (1785-1828), was a minor novelist, famous for her affair with Lord Byron in 1812-13
after the destruction of the 2nd Temple
in the period after the second temple of the Jews was destroyed by the Romans
2nd
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