alexander

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alexander the great
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alexander i
i alexander Şimdi Alexander İspanyolca'ya çevirebilir. - Now, Alexander can translate in Spanish.
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A male given name, most famously held by Alexander the Great "My son's name is Alexander," Muriel said. "Did I tell you that? I named him Alexander because it sounded high-class.
A patronymic surname
Alexanders: any of various umbellifers, often specifically Smyrnium olusatrum or Heracleum maximum, the cow parsnip
most famously held by Alexander the Great
king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC)
Russian Aleksandr Pavlovich born Dec. 23, 1777, St. Petersburg, Russia died Dec. 1, 1825, Taganrog Tsar of Russia (1801-25). He became tsar in 1801 after the assassination of his father, Paul I. He and his advisers corrected many of the injustices of the preceding reign but failed to carry out the abolition of serfdom. During the Napoleonic Wars he alternately fought and befriended Napoleon and helped form the coalition that finally defeated him. Alexander also participated in the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) and formed the Holy Alliance (1815). After his sudden death in 1825, a legend sprang up that he had simply "departed" to a Siberian retreat. born Dec. 4, 1888, Cetinje, Montenegro died Oct. 9, 1934, Marseille, France King of Yugoslavia (1921-34). After commanding Serbian forces in World War I, Alexander succeeded his father, Peter I, as king of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1921. In 1929 he abolished the constitution and established a royal dictatorship. As part of his efforts to unify his subjects, he changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia; outlawed political parties based on ethnic, religious, or regional distinctions; reorganized the state; and standardized legal systems, school curricula, and national holidays. In 1934 he was assassinated by an agent of Croatian separatists. Russian Aleksandr Nikolayevich born April 29, 1818, Moscow, Russia died March 13, 1881, St. Petersburg Tsar of Russia (1855-81). He succeeded to the throne at the height of the Crimean War, which revealed Russia's backwardness on the world stage. In response, he undertook drastic reform, improving communications, government, and education, and most importantly, emancipating the serfs (1861). His reforms reduced class privilege and fostered humanitarian progress and economic development. Though sometimes described as a liberal, Alexander was in reality a firm upholder of autocratic principles, and an assassination attempt in 1866 strengthened his commitment to conservatism. A period of repression after 1866 led to a resurgence of revolutionary terrorism, and in 1881 he was killed in a plot sponsored by the terrorist organization People's Will. born Aug. 24, 1198, Haddington, Lothian died July 8, 1249, Kerrera Island King of Scotland (1214-49). He came to the throne on the death of his father, William I (the Lion). In 1215 he supported the rebellious English barons against King John, hoping to regain land in northern England. After the rebellion collapsed (1217), he did homage to Henry III and in 1221 married Henry's sister, Joan. He consolidated royal authority in Scotland and subdued Argyll in 1222. In 1237 he concluded the Peace of York with Henry by which he abandoned his claim to land in England and received in exchange several English estates. orig. Rolando Bandinelli born 1105, Siena, Tuscany died Aug. 30, 1181, Rome Pope (1159-81). A member of the group of cardinals who feared the growing strength of the Holy Roman Empire, he helped draw up an alliance with the Normans (1156). As the representative of Pope Adrian IV, he angered Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa) by referring to the empire as a "benefice," implying that it was a gift of the pope. On Alexander's election as pope in 1159, a minority of cardinals supported by Frederick elected the first of several antipopes, and imperial opposition obliged Alexander to flee to France (1162). A vigorous defender of papal authority, he supported St. Thomas Becket against Henry II of England. He returned to Rome in 1165 but was exiled again the following year. He gained support with the formation of the Lombard League, which defeated Frederick at Legnano in 1176, paving the way for the Peace of Venice and the end of the papal schism. Alexander stood in the reform tradition and presided at the third Lateran Council (1179). Russian Aleksandr Aleksandrovich born March 10, 1845, St. Petersburg, Russia died Nov. 1, 1894, Livadiya, Crimea Tsar of Russia (1881-94). He assumed the throne after the assassination of his father, Alexander II. The internal reforms he instituted were designed to correct what he saw as the too-liberal tendencies of his father's reign. He thus opposed representative government and ardently supported Russian nationalism. His political ideal was a nation containing a single nationality, language, religion, and form of administration, and accordingly he instituted programs such as the Russification of national minorities in the Russian Empire and the persecution of non-Orthodox religious groups. born Sept. 2, 1241 died March 18/19, 1286, near Kinghorn, Fife, Scot. King of Scotland (1249-86). Son of Alexander II, he came to the throne at age
In 1251 he was married to Margaret, daughter of England's King Henry III, who sought to gain control over Scotland. In 1255 Alexander was seized by a pro-English party in Scotland; in 1257 the anti-English party gained control of the government until he came of age (1262). In 1263 he repulsed a Norwegian invasion, and in 1266 he acquired the Hebrides and the Isle of Man from Norway. His reign was later viewed as a golden age by Scots caught up in the long conflict with England. orig. Rodrigo de Borja y Doms born 1431, Játiva, Aragon died Aug. 18, 1503, Rome Pope (1492-1503). Born into the Spanish branch of the Borgia family, he amassed great wealth and lived scandalously, fathering four illegitimate children (before his election as pope), who played an important role in his complicated dynastic plans. He warred against the Ottoman Turks and forced the French to abandon their effort to seize Naples. The murder of his son Juan (1497) prompted Alexander's short-lived attempt to restrain the corruption of the papal court. His political ambitions, however, were revived with the marriage of his son Cesare, whose military campaigns brought northern Italy under Borgia control. He concluded an alliance with Spain and negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). A patron of the arts, he embellished the Vatican palaces and commissioned Michelangelo to draw up plans for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica. Agassiz Alexander Emmanuel Rodolphe Alexander Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl Alexander I Alexander II Alexander III Alexander VI Alexander Archipelago Alexander Island Alexander Nevsky Saint Alexander the Great Archipenko Alexander Bach Alexander baron von Bell Alexander Graham Calder Alexander Stirling Cartwright Alexander Joy Cockburn Sir Alexander James Edmund 10th Baronet Crowe Sir Eyre Alexander Barby Wichart Dubcek Alexander Fleming Sir Alexander Galt Sir Alexander Tilloch Gardner Alexander Archibald Alexander Leach Haley Alexander Palmer Hamilton Alexander Jackson Alexander Young Alexander Liholiho Korda Sir Alexander Macdonald Sir John Alexander MacDowell Edward Alexander Edward Alexander McDowell Cornelius Alexander McGillicuddy Mackenzie Alexander Mackenzie Sir Alexander Macmillan Daniel and Alexander McGillivray Alexander Milne Alan Alexander Mundell Robert Alexander Olav Alexander Edward Christian Frederik Palmer Alexander Mitchell Pope Alexander Richards Isaac Vivian Alexander Schuller Gunther Alexander Schumann Robert Alexander Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Alexander Pius Simon Herbert Alexander Stephens Alexander Hamilton Stirling William Alexander 1st earl of Ustinov Sir Peter Alexander Watson Watt Sir Robert Alexander Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk Wilson Alexander Woollcott Alexander Humphreys William Alexander Abbott Alexander Frederick Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr baron von Jesse Woodson James and Alexander Franklin James Severus Alexander Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
{i} male first name
king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC) European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
Alexander the Great
A king of ancient Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia
Alexander Agassiz
born Dec. 17, 1835, Neuchâtel, Switz. died March 27, 1910, at sea, mid-Atlantic Ocean Swiss-born U.S. marine zoologist, oceanographer, and mining engineer. The son of Louis Agassiz, he emigrated in 1849 to the U.S., where he conducted significant systematic zoological work on echinoderms (e.g., starfish). He developed and supervised what became the world's foremost copper mine (Calumet, Mich.) while also improving conditions for miners. He also pursued marine and coral reef studies. His observations made on an 1875 trip to the western coast of South America led him to challenge Charles Darwin's theory of coral reef formation
Alexander Archipelago
A group of more than 1,000 islands off southeast Alaska. The rugged, heavily forested islands are the exposed tops of submerged coastal mountains that rise steeply from the Pacific Ocean. Group of about 1,100 islands, southeastern Alaska, U.S. Extending southward from Glacier Bay, the chief islands are Chichagof, Admiralty, Baranof, Kupreanof, Prince of Wales, and Revillagigedo. The chief towns are Sitka (on Baranof) and Ketchikan (on Revillagigedo). The islands are separated from the mainland by deep, narrow channels that form part of the Inside Passage. The archipelago's name, given in 1867, honours Tsar Alexander II
Alexander Archipenko
born May 30, 1887, Kiev, Ukr. died Feb. 25, 1964, New York, N.Y., U.S. Ukrainian-U.S. sculptor. In 1908 he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts, and he soon became active in radical circles such as the Cubist movement. He began to explore the interplay between interlocking voids and solids and between convex and concave surfaces, forming a sculptural equivalent to Cubist paintings' overlapping planes and, in the process, revolutionizing modern sculpture. About 1912 he introduced the concept of collage in sculpture, and he went on to further defy tradition in his "sculpto-paintings," works in which he introduced painted colour to the intersecting planes of his sculpture. In 1923 he moved to New York City, where he worked and taught for most of his life
Alexander Bell
(1847-1922) American scientist (born in Scotland), inventor of the telephone
Alexander Calder
a US sculptor famous for his large outdoor works of art found in many cities, and for his large mobiles (=decorations which move when air blows around them) (1898-1976). born July 22, 1898, Lawnton, Pa., U.S. died Nov. 11, 1976, New York, N.Y. U.S. sculptor. He was the son and grandson of sculptors, and his mother was a painter. He studied mechanical engineering, and in 1923 attended the Art Students League, where he was influenced by artists of the Ash Can school. In 1924 he contributed illustrations to the National Police Gazette. In 1926 he moved to Paris and began making toylike animals and circus figures of wood and wire; from these he developed his famous miniature circus. In the 1930s he became well known in Paris and the U.S. for his wire sculptures, as well as for portraits, continuous-line drawings, and abstract, motor-driven constructions. He is best known as the inventor of the mobile, a forerunner of kinetic sculpture. He also constructed nonmovable sculptural works known as stabiles. Although Calder's early mobiles and stabiles were relatively small, he increasingly moved toward monumentality in his later works. His art was recognized with many large-scale exhibitions
Alexander Cartwright
born April 17, 1820, New York, N.Y., U.S. died July 12, 1892, Honolulu, Hawaii U.S. surveyor and baseball enthusiast. Cartwright was a founder of the amateur New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club and chaired the commission that established baseball's official rules. These included the requirement of tagging out a base runner rather than hitting him with a thrown ball and fixing the distance between bases at 90 ft (27.4 m). The first game under the newly codified rules was apparently played in Hoboken, N.J., in 1846. See also Abner Doubleday
Alexander Crummell
(1819-1898) black American clergyman and author, founder of the American Negro Academy
Alexander Dubcek
born Nov. 27, 1921, Uhrovec, Czech. died Nov. 7, 1992, Prague Czech politician. In World War II he took part in the underground resistance to Nazi occupation. After the war he rose in Communist Party ranks to become a member of the Presidium of the party's Central Committee (1962). In 1968 he forced Antonín Novotny (1904-75) to resign and replaced him as head of the Communist Party. He introduced liberal reforms in the brief period known as the Prague Spring, which ended when the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Demoted to lesser posts, he was expelled from the party in 1970. He returned to prominence in 1989 after the Communist Party had given up its monopoly on power, and was elected speaker of the Czech parliament
Alexander Emmanuel Rodolphe Agassiz
born Dec. 17, 1835, Neuchâtel, Switz. died March 27, 1910, at sea, mid-Atlantic Ocean Swiss-born U.S. marine zoologist, oceanographer, and mining engineer. The son of Louis Agassiz, he emigrated in 1849 to the U.S., where he conducted significant systematic zoological work on echinoderms (e.g., starfish). He developed and supervised what became the world's foremost copper mine (Calumet, Mich.) while also improving conditions for miners. He also pursued marine and coral reef studies. His observations made on an 1875 trip to the western coast of South America led him to challenge Charles Darwin's theory of coral reef formation
Alexander Fleming
(1881-1955) British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928
Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt
born Sept. 14, 1769, Berlin, Prussia died May 6, 1859, Berlin German naturalist and explorer. In 1792 he joined the mining department of the Prussian government, where he invented a safety lamp and established a technical school for miners. From 1799 he explored Central and South America, traveling in the Amazon jungles and the Andean highlands. During these journeys he discovered the connection between the Amazon and Orinoco river systems and surmised that altitude sickness was caused by lack of oxygen. He studied the oceanic current off the western coast of South America; it became known as the Humboldt Current (now the Peru Current). He returned to Europe in 1804. His research helped lay the foundation for comparative climatology, drew a connection between a region's geography and its flora and fauna, and added to an understanding of the development of the Earth's crust. In Paris he used his financial resources to help Louis Agassiz and others launch careers. In 1829 he traveled to Russia and Siberia and made geographic, geologic, and meteorologic observations of Central Asia. During the 1830s he investigated magnetic storms. The last 25 years of his life were spent writing Kosmos, an account of the structure of the universe as then known
Alexander Gardner
born Oct. 17, 1821, Paisley, Scot. died 1882, Washington, D.C., U.S. Scottish-born U.S. photographer. In 1856, the year he emigrated from Scotland, he was hired by Mathew B. Brady as a portrait photographer, and within two years he opened a studio for Brady in Washington, D.C. In 1861 he began to assist Brady in making a photographic record of the American Civil War. Brady refused to give him public credit, so in 1863 he opened his own portrait studio and continued photographing the war on his own. He published a collection of 100 original prints in 1866. From 1867, as photographer for the Union Pacific Railroad in Kansas, he chronicled the building of the railroad and the new settlements built around it
Alexander Graham Bell
a Scottish scientist and inventor who lived in the US. He invented the telephone in 1876 (1847-1922). born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scot. died Aug. 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Can. Scottish-born U.S. audiologist and inventor. He moved to the U.S. in 1871 to teach the visible-speech system developed by his father, Alexander Melville Bell (1819-1905). He opened his own school in Boston for training teachers of the deaf (1872) and was influential in disseminating these methods. In 1876 he became the first person to transmit intelligible words through electric wire ("Watson, come here, I want you," spoken to his assistant Thomas Watson). He patented the telephone the same year, and in 1877 he cofounded Bell Telephone Co. With the proceeds from France's Volta Prize, he founded Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1880. His experiments there led to the invention of the photophone (which transmitted speech by light rays), the audiometer (which measured acuteness of hearing), the Graphophone (an early practical sound recorder), and working wax recording media, both flat and cylindrical, for the Graphophone. He was chiefly responsible for founding the journal Science, founded the American Association to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (1890), and continued his significant research on deafness throughout his life
Alexander Graham Bell
{i} (1847-1922) American scientist (born in Scotland) who invented the telephone
Alexander H Stephens
born Feb. 11, 1812, Wilkes county, Ga., U.S. died March 4, 1883, Atlanta, Ga. U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843-59), where he defended slavery but opposed dissolution of the Union. When Georgia seceded, he was elected vice president of the Confederacy. He supported constitutional government, opposed attempts by Jefferson Davis to infringe on individuals' rights, and advocated a program of prisoner exchanges. He led the delegation to the Hampton Roads Conference (1865). After the war he was held in Boston for five months. He served again in the House (1873-82) and as governor of Georgia (1882-83)
Alexander Hamilton
a US politician who helped to write the Constitution of the United States and was the first US Secretary of the Treasury from 1789 to 1795. Alexander Hamilton's picture is printed on the US ten-dollar bill (?1755-1804). born Jan. 11, 1755/57, Nevis, British West Indies died July 12, 1804, New York, N.Y., U.S. U.S. statesman. He first came to the U.S. in 1772, arriving in New Jersey. In the American Revolution he joined the Continental Army and showed conspicuous bravery at the Battle of Trenton (see Battles of Trenton and Princeton). He served as aide-de-camp to Gen. George Washington (1777-81); fluent in French, he became a liaison with French commanders. After the war he practiced law in New York. At the Continental Congress, he argued for a strong central government. As a delegate to the Annapolis Convention in 1786, he drafted the address that led to the Constitutional Convention. With James Madison and John Jay, he wrote an influential series of essays, later known as the Federalist papers, in defense of the new Constitution and republican government. Appointed the first secretary of the treasury (1789), Hamilton developed fiscal policies designed to strengthen the national government at the expense of the states. His proposal for a Bank of the United States was opposed by Thomas Jefferson but adopted by Congress in 1791. Differences between Hamilton and Jefferson over the powers of the national government and the country's foreign policy led to the rise of political parties; Hamilton became leader of the Federalist Party, and Madison and Jefferson created the Democratic-Republican Party. Hamilton favoured friendship with Britain and influenced Washington to take a neutral stand toward the French Revolution. In 1796 he caused a rift in the Federalist Party by opposing its nomination of John Adams for president. In 1800 he tried to prevent Adams's reelection, circulating a private attack that Aaron Burr, long at odds with Hamilton, obtained and published. When Jefferson and Burr both defeated Adams but received an equal number of electoral votes, Hamilton helped persuade the Federalists in the House of Representatives to choose Jefferson. In 1804 he opposed Burr's candidacy for governor of New York. This affront, coupled with alleged remarks questioning Burr's character, led Burr to challenge Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded
Alexander Hamilton
(1755-1804) American statesman, signer of the United States Constitution
Alexander Hamilton Stephens
born Feb. 11, 1812, Wilkes county, Ga., U.S. died March 4, 1883, Atlanta, Ga. U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843-59), where he defended slavery but opposed dissolution of the Union. When Georgia seceded, he was elected vice president of the Confederacy. He supported constitutional government, opposed attempts by Jefferson Davis to infringe on individuals' rights, and advocated a program of prisoner exchanges. He led the delegation to the Hampton Roads Conference (1865). After the war he was held in Boston for five months. He served again in the House (1873-82) and as governor of Georgia (1882-83)
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott
born Jan. 19, 1887, Phalanx, N.J., U.S. died Jan. 23, 1943, New York, N.Y. U.S. author, critic, and actor. He joined the New York Times in 1909 and became its drama critic in 1914. Known for his acerbic wit, he became the self-appointed leader of the Algonquin Round Table, the informal luncheon club at New York's Algonquin Hotel in the 1920s and '30s that included Groucho Marx, Dorothy Parker, Robert Sherwood, and George S. Kaufman. He later contributed articles to The New Yorker and wrote such books as Two Gentlemen and a Lady (1928) and While Rome Burns (1934). He inspired the play The Man Who Came to Dinner (1939)
Alexander I
Czar of Russia (1801-1825) whose plans to liberalize his country's government were forestalled by wars with Napoleon I. King of Yugoslavia (1921-1934) who unified the peoples of Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia (1929) and was assassinated by Croatian separatists
Alexander I Island
An island of British Antarctic Territory in Bellingshausen Sea off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Originally thought to be part of the Antarctic landmass, it was proved to be an island by a U.S. exploratory team in 1940
Alexander II
Czar of Russia (1855-1881) who emancipated the serfs in 1861
Alexander III
{i} (1845-1894) Russian czar from 1881 to 1894; Orlando Bandinelli (c.1105-1181), pope from 1159 to 1181; Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), king of Macedonia and conqueror of the Greek city-states and the Persian empire
Alexander III
King of Macedonia (336-323) and conquerer of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia. His reign marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Age. Pope (1159-1181) who excommunicated Frederick I (1165) and established papal supremacy
Alexander Island
Island in Bellingshausen Sea, separated from the Antarctic mainland by George VI Sound. An extremely rugged region with peaks as high as 9,800 ft (3,000 m), it is 270 mi (435 km) long and up to 125 mi (200 km) wide, with an area of 16,700 sq mi (43,250 sq km). The Russian explorer F.G. von Bellingshausen discovered the land in 1821 and named it after Tsar Alexander. It was believed part of the mainland until 1940, when a U.S. expedition proved it to be an island, connected to the continent by a huge floating ice shelf. It has been claimed by Britain (since 1908), Chile (1940), and Argentina (1942)
Alexander Joy Cartwright
born April 17, 1820, New York, N.Y., U.S. died July 12, 1892, Honolulu, Hawaii U.S. surveyor and baseball enthusiast. Cartwright was a founder of the amateur New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club and chaired the commission that established baseball's official rules. These included the requirement of tagging out a base runner rather than hitting him with a thrown ball and fixing the distance between bases at 90 ft (27.4 m). The first game under the newly codified rules was apparently played in Hoboken, N.J., in 1846. See also Abner Doubleday
Alexander Mackenzie
born Jan. 28, 1822, Logierait, Perth, Scot. died April 17, 1892, Toronto, Ont., Can. Scottish-born Canadian politician, first Liberal prime minister of Canada (1873-78). He emigrated to Canada West (now Ontario) in 1842. In 1852 he became editor of a local Liberal newspaper and befriended George Brown, leader of the Reform Party. When the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the House of Commons, where he led the Liberal opposition. As prime minister, his efforts at renewed reciprocity with the U.S. failed to address economic concerns, and his government was defeated in 1878. He resigned as leader of the opposition but held a seat in Parliament until his death
Alexander McGillivray
born 1759 died Feb. 17, 1793, Pensacola, Fla. Principal chief of the Creek Indians in the years following the American Revolution. Of French and Creek descent, he was tutored by whites in Charleston, S.C., before being made a Creek chief. Distrustful of American land speculators, he signed a treaty (1784) with the Spanish in Florida putting the Creek under Spain's protection. After repeated U.S. entreaties, he agreed to American sovereignty over Creek lands as long as the Creek could remain there free of American encroachments
Alexander Mitchell Palmer
born May 4, 1872, Moosehead, Pa., U.S. died May 11, 1936, Washington, D.C. U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1915 and helped secure the Democratic Party presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Appointed U.S. attorney general (1919-21), Palmer used the espionage and sedition acts (1917, 1918) to attack political radicals, dissidents, and aliens in the "Red Scare" period following World War I. The government-led roundup of suspected communists became known as the "Palmer raids." In 1920 he ran unsuccessfully for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party
Alexander Palmer Haley
born Aug. 11, 1921, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S. died Feb. 10, 1992, Seattle, Wash. U.S. writer. He was raised in North Carolina, served in the Coast Guard (1939-59), and later became a journalist. An interview with Malcolm X led to the best-selling Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965; film, 1992). His greatest success, however, was Roots (1976, special Pulitzer Prize), a history of seven generations of his ancestors beginning with their enslavement. Adapted for television, it became one of the most popular American television shows ever and spurred great interest in genealogy, though Haley later admitted that the saga was partly fictional
Alexander Penn
{i} (1906-1972) Russian born Hebrew poet who immigrated to Israel in 1927
Alexander Pope
a British poet and satirist. Many people consider him the most important poet of his time, and admire his use of the heroic couplet. His best known works are The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad. He also produced very popular translations of the poems of Homer (1688-1744). born May 21, 1688, London, Eng. died May 30, 1744, Twickenham, near London English poet and satirist. A precocious boy precluded from formal education by his Roman Catholicism, Pope was mainly self-educated. A deformity of the spine and other health problems limited his growth and physical activities, leading him to devote himself to reading and writing. His first major work was An Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem on the art of writing that contains several brilliant epigrams (e.g., "To err is human, to forgive, divine"). His witty mock-epic The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714) ridicules fashionable society. The great labour of his life was his verse translation of Homer's Iliad (1720) and Odyssey (1726), whose success made him financially secure. He became involved in many literary battles, prompting him to write poems such as the scathing mock-epic The Dunciad (1728) and An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot (1735). The philosophical An Essay on Man (1733-34) was intended as part of a larger work that he never completed
Alexander Pushkin
{i} (1799-1837) Russian poet and writer of short stories
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
a Russian writer who spent many years in prison because of his criticism of Stalinism and the system of government in the former Soviet Union. He was forced to leave the Soviet Union in 1974 and went to live in the US. His books include One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Cancer Ward, and The Gulag Archipelago. He was given the Nobel Prize for literature in 1970 (1918- )
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
{i} (born 1918) Russian writer and historian, winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in literature, he was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974 and moved to Switzerland and then to the USA (he returned to Russia in 1994)
Alexander Stirling Calder
born July 22, 1898, Lawnton, Pa., U.S. died Nov. 11, 1976, New York, N.Y. U.S. sculptor. He was the son and grandson of sculptors, and his mother was a painter. He studied mechanical engineering, and in 1923 attended the Art Students League, where he was influenced by artists of the Ash Can school. In 1924 he contributed illustrations to the National Police Gazette. In 1926 he moved to Paris and began making toylike animals and circus figures of wood and wire; from these he developed his famous miniature circus. In the 1930s he became well known in Paris and the U.S. for his wire sculptures, as well as for portraits, continuous-line drawings, and abstract, motor-driven constructions. He is best known as the inventor of the mobile, a forerunner of kinetic sculpture. He also constructed nonmovable sculptural works known as stabiles. Although Calder's early mobiles and stabiles were relatively small, he increasingly moved toward monumentality in his later works. His art was recognized with many large-scale exhibitions
Alexander VI
Pope (1492-1503) noted as a patron of the arts and for his corrupt papacy
Alexander Wilson
born July 6, 1766, Paisley, Renfrew, Scot. died Aug. 23, 1813, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. Scottish-born U.S. ornithologist. In Scotland he wrote poetry while working as a weaver and peddler; in 1792 his satiric works led to a fine and imprisonment. Impoverished, in 1794 he immigrated to the U.S., where he became a teacher. Influenced by William Bartram, he decided 1804 to write on North American birds, and he began studying art and ornithology in his leisure time. His pioneering work American Ornithology (9 vol., 1808-14) established him as a founder of the field. After publication of its first volume, he spent much of his time selling subscriptions for the expensive work and collecting specimens for the remaining volumes
Alexander Woollcott
born Jan. 19, 1887, Phalanx, N.J., U.S. died Jan. 23, 1943, New York, N.Y. U.S. author, critic, and actor. He joined the New York Times in 1909 and became its drama critic in 1914. Known for his acerbic wit, he became the self-appointed leader of the Algonquin Round Table, the informal luncheon club at New York's Algonquin Hotel in the 1920s and '30s that included Groucho Marx, Dorothy Parker, Robert Sherwood, and George S. Kaufman. He later contributed articles to The New Yorker and wrote such books as Two Gentlemen and a Lady (1928) and While Rome Burns (1934). He inspired the play The Man Who Came to Dinner (1939)
Alexander Yannai
{i} (126-76 BC) king of Judea from the Hasmonean dynasty
Alexander Young Jackson
born Oct. 3, 1882, Montreal, Que., Can. died April 5, 1974, Kleinburg, Ont. Canadian landscape painter. He traveled to every region of Canada, including the Arctic; from 1921 on, he returned every spring to a favourite spot on the St. Lawrence River, where he produced sketches that he later executed in paint. Over a long career he became a leading artistic figure in his country. His easy style, featuring rolling rhythms and rich, full colour, exerted a strong influence on Canadian landscape painting
Alexander baron von Bach
born Jan. 4, 1813 died 1893 Austrian politician noted for instituting a system of centralized control. He served as minister of the interior (1849-59); after the death of Felix, prince zu Schwarzenberg in 1852, he largely dictated policy in the regime. Bach centralized administrative authority for the Austrian Empire, but he also endorsed reactionary policies that reduced freedom of the press and abandoned public trials
Alexander technique
a system of sitting, standing, and moving, which some believe can help to improve general health
Alexander the Great
{i} (356-323 BC) king of Macedonia and conqueror of the Greek city-states and the Persian empire
Alexander the Great
He was buried in Alexandria, Egypt. His empire, the greatest that had existed to that time, extended from Thrace to Egypt and from Greece to the Indus valley
Alexander the Great
a king of Macedonia who took control of Greece, Egypt, and most of the countries to the east of the Mediterranean Sea as far as India (356-323 BC). or Alexander III born 356 BC, Pella, Macedonia died June 13, 323 BC, Babylon King of Macedonia (336-323) and the greatest military leader of antiquity. The son of Philip II of Macedonia, he was taught by Aristotle. He soon showed military brilliance, helping win the Battle of Chaeronea at age
Alexander the Great
He succeeded his assassinated father in 336 and promptly took Thessaly and Thrace; he brutally razed Thebes except for its temples and the house of Pindar. Such destruction was to be his standard method, and other Greek states submitted meekly. In 334 he crossed to Persia and defeated a Persian army at the Granicus River. He is said to have cut the Gordian knot in Phrygia (333), by which act, according to legend, he was destined to rule all Asia. At the Battle of Issus in 333, he defeated another army, this one led by the Persian king Darius III, who managed to escape. He then took Syria and Phoenicia, cutting off the Persian fleet from its ports. In 332 he completed a seven-month siege of Tyre, considered his greatest military achievement, and then took Egypt. There he received the pharaohs' double crown, founded Alexandria, and visited the oracle of the god Amon, the basis of his claim to divinity. In control of the eastern Mediterranean coast, in 331 he defeated Darius in a decisive battle at Gaugamela, though Darius again escaped. He next took the province of Babylon. He burnt Xerxes' palace at Persepolis, Persia, in 330, and he envisioned an empire ruled jointly by Macedonians and Persians. He continued eastward, quashing real or imagined conspiracies among his men and taking control to the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, founding cities (most named Alexandria) to hold the territory. Conquering what is now Tajikistan, he married the princess Roxana and embraced Persian absolutism, adopting Persian dress and enforcing Persian court customs. By 326 he reached the Hyphasis in India, where his weary men mutinied; he turned back, marching and pillaging down the Indus, and reached Susa with much loss of life. He continued to promote his unpopular policy of racial fusion, a seeming attempt to form a Persian-Macedonian master race. When his favourite, Hephaestion (324), died, Alexander gave him a hero's funeral and demanded that divine honours be given at his own funeral. He fell ill at Babylon after long feasting and drinking and died at age
alexander archipelago
a group of islands off southeastern Alaska
alexander i
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
alexander ii
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
alexander iii
son of Alexander II who was czar of Russia (1845-1894)
alexander vi
Pope and father of Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia (1431-1503)
Alan Alexander Milne
born Jan. 18, 1882, London, Eng. died Jan. 31, 1956, Hartfield, Sussex English writer. He joined the staff of Punch in 1906 and produced successful light comedies and a memorable detective novel, The Red House Mystery (1922), before verses written for his son Christopher Robin grew into the collections When We Were Very Young (1924) and Now We Are Six (1927), which became beloved classics. Stories about the adventures of Christopher Robin and the toy animals Pooh, Piglet, Kanga, Roo, Tigger, Rabbit, Owl, and Eeyore are told in the immensely popular Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928)
Cornelius Alexander McGillicuddy
orig. Cornelius (Alexander) McGillicuddy born Dec. 22/23, 1862, East Brookfield, Mass., U.S. died Feb. 8, 1956, Philadelphia, Pa. U.S. baseball manager and team executive. Mack played professional baseball (1886-96), usually as a catcher, before becoming manager of the Milwaukee Brewers (1897-1900) and the Philadelphia Athletics (1901-50). He was president of the Athletics from 1937 to 1953. His teams won 3,776 games and lost 4,025, both all-time records. He helped establish the American League
Daniel and Alexander Macmillan
born Sept. 13, 1813, Isle of Arran, Buteshire, Scot. died June 27, 1857, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng. born Oct. 3, 1818, Irvine, Ayrshire, Scot. died Jan. 26, 1896, London? Scottish booksellers and publishers. Apprenticed to a bookseller in Scotland at age 11, Daniel worked for London booksellers from 1837 to 1843. In 1843 he and his brother Alexander founded Macmillan & Co., a successful bookshop in Cambridge that began publishing textbooks in 1844 and novels in 1855. After Daniel's death, Alexander expanded the firm's list and founded Macmillan's Magazine (1859-1907), a literary periodical, and from 1869 Nature, still a leading scientific journal. He established offices abroad and published many important Victorian writers. Long led by Daniel's descendants, the company grew into one of the largest publishing firms in the world
Edward Alexander MacDowell
His farm in Peterborough, N.H., became the MacDowell Colony for artists after his death. His most popular works are the Second Piano Concerto in D Minor (1886), the Second Orchestral ("Indian") Suite (1895), and piano sets such as Woodland Sketches (1896) and Sea Pieces (1898)
Edward Alexander MacDowell
orig. Edward Alexander McDowell born Dec. 18, 1860, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Jan. 23, 1908, New York City U.S. composer. He started piano lessons at age eight. While in Germany for further study, he impressed the composer Joachim Raff (1822-82), who urged him to write a piano concerto (1882), then introduced him to Franz Liszt, who assisted MacDowell with performances and publication. In 1888 he returned to the U.S. with his wife, and in 1896 he became Columbia University's first professor of music. Paresis made him unable to perform or compose after 1904, and he lapsed into insanity and died at age
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr baron von Humboldt
born Sept. 14, 1769, Berlin, Prussia died May 6, 1859, Berlin German naturalist and explorer. In 1792 he joined the mining department of the Prussian government, where he invented a safety lamp and established a technical school for miners. From 1799 he explored Central and South America, traveling in the Amazon jungles and the Andean highlands. During these journeys he discovered the connection between the Amazon and Orinoco river systems and surmised that altitude sickness was caused by lack of oxygen. He studied the oceanic current off the western coast of South America; it became known as the Humboldt Current (now the Peru Current). He returned to Europe in 1804. His research helped lay the foundation for comparative climatology, drew a connection between a region's geography and its flora and fauna, and added to an understanding of the development of the Earth's crust. In Paris he used his financial resources to help Louis Agassiz and others launch careers. In 1829 he traveled to Russia and Siberia and made geographic, geologic, and meteorologic observations of Central Asia. During the 1830s he investigated magnetic storms. The last 25 years of his life were spent writing Kosmos, an account of the structure of the universe as then known
Grover Cleveland Alexander
a US baseball player and one of the greatest pitchers. He played for the Philadelphia Phillies and Chicago Cubs from 1911 to 1930 (1887-1950)
Gunther Alexander Schuller
born Nov. 22, 1925, New York, N.Y., U.S. U.S. composer, conductor, and educator. Son of a violinist, he trained at the Manhattan School of Music. He played French horn with the Cincinnati Orchestra from age 18 and with the Metropolitan Opera orchestra (1945-59), as well as with jazz musicians such as Miles Davis and the Modern Jazz Quartet. His "third stream" music (combining classical and jazz styles) includes compositions such as Seven Studies on Themes of Paul Klee (1959). He was president of the New England Conservatory of Music (1967-77) and directed the Berkshire Music Center (1974-84). A preeminent authority on jazz, he wrote the acclaimed Early Jazz (1968) and The Swing Era (1988)
Harold Alexander 1st Earl Alexander
born Dec. 10, 1891, London, Eng. died June 16, 1969, Slough, Buckinghamshire British field marshal in World War II. In 1940 he helped direct the Dunkirk evacuation and was the last man to leave the beaches. Appointed British commander in chief in the Mediterranean theatre in 1942, he helped lead the North Africa Campaign against the Germans. He directed the invasions of Sicily and Italy, then became commander in chief of Allied forces in Italy. After the war, he served as governor-general of Canada (1946-52) and as Britain's minister of defense (1952-54)
Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl Alexander
born Dec. 10, 1891, London, Eng. died June 16, 1969, Slough, Buckinghamshire British field marshal in World War II. In 1940 he helped direct the Dunkirk evacuation and was the last man to leave the beaches. Appointed British commander in chief in the Mediterranean theatre in 1942, he helped lead the North Africa Campaign against the Germans. He directed the invasions of Sicily and Italy, then became commander in chief of Allied forces in Italy. After the war, he served as governor-general of Canada (1946-52) and as Britain's minister of defense (1952-54)
Henryk Adam Alexander Pius Sienkiewicz
born May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Pol. died Nov. 15, 1916, Vevey, Switz. Polish novelist. In 1869 he began to publish critical works showing the influence of positivism. He worked as a newspaperman and published successful short stories before producing the great trilogy consisting of With Fire and Sword (1884), The Deluge (1886), and Pan Michael (1887-88). Describing Poland's struggles against Cossacks, Tatars, Swedes, and Turks, the novels stress Polish heroism in a vivid style of epic clarity and simplicity. The widely translated Quo Vadis? (1896), set in Rome under Nero, established his international reputation. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905
Herbert Alexander Simon
born June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S. died Feb. 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa. U.S. social scientist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1943. At Carnegie-Mellon University (from 1949), he taught psychology and later computer science. In Administrative Behavior (1947) Simon argued for recognizing a multiplicity of factors (including psychological ones) in corporate decision making rather than emphasizing the achievement of maximum profits as the primary motivation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978. He subsequently worked in the field of artificial intelligence using computer technology
Isaac Vivian Alexander Richards
v. born March 7, 1952, St. John's, Antigua West Indian professional cricket player. Born into a sporting family, Richards appeared in his first Test match for the West Indies against India in 1974, but he came to prominence with a score of 192 while batting against India in his second Test that year. In 1976 Richards scored a record 1,710 runs. His 56-ball century (scoring 100 points on 56 balls bowled) in 1985 is a record in Test cricket. Richards played a vital role in the West Indies' two World Cup triumphs. He captained the West Indies in 50 Tests with 27 victories and holds the record for never having lost a series as captain. He was selected Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1977 and was also one of the five cricketers of the century selected by Wisden in 2000. He began coaching the West Indies team upon his retirement as a player in 1991
Jason Alexander
(born 1959) U.S. film and television actor who plays the role of George in the TV series "Seinfeld
Karl Alexander Müller
{i} K. Alex Müller (born 1927), Swiss physicist, 1987 Nobel Prize winner for Physics (together with J. Georg Bednorz) for his research and discovery of superconductivity
Robert Alexander Mundell
born Oct. 24, 1932, Kingston, Ont., Can. Canadian-born economist who received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1999 for his work on monetary dynamics and optimum currency areas. Mundell earned degrees from the University of British Columbia (B.A., 1953), the University of Washington (M.A., 1954), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1956). He taught economics at the University of Chicago (1956-57) and Columbia University (1974- ). Through research for the International Monetary Fund, Mundell analyzed the effect of exchange rates on monetary policies. In 1961 he theorized that an economic region characterized by free movement of labour and trade could support a single currency. His theories contributed to the creation of the euro, the single currency adopted by the European Union on Jan. 1, 1999
Robert Alexander Schumann
born June 8, 1810, Zwickau, Saxony died July 29, 1856, Endenich, near Bonn, Prussia German composer. Son of a bookseller, he considered becoming a novelist. Under family pressure he reluctantly entered law school, but he devoted his time to song composition and piano lessons. An injury to one of his fingers put an end to his hopes of a career as a virtuoso and confined him to composition. He embarked upon a prolific period, writing piano pieces and founding, in 1834, the New Journal for Music. His works from this fertile period include Papillons, Carnaval (both 1833-35), and Davidsbündlertänze (1837). He married the pianist Clara Wieck in 1840. That year he returned to the field of the solo song; in the span of 11 months he composed nearly all the songs on which much of his reputation rests, such as the song cycles Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und Leben. The next year he widened his scope to orchestral music, producing Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 4, and his piano concerto; in 1842 he concentrated on chamber music. In his last productive years, he turned to dramatic or semidramatic works. His mental deterioration (probably associated with both syphilis and a family history of mental illness) accelerated; in 1854 he was placed in a sanatorium, where he died two years later
Saint Alexander Nevsky
born 1220, Vladimir, Grand Principality of Vladimir died Nov. 14, 1263, Gorodets Prince of Novgorod (1236-52) and Kiev (1246-52) and grand prince of Vladimir (1252-63). He fought off invading Swedes in 1240 at the Neva River (resulting in the epithet Nevsky). He was called back to service to defeat the Teutonic Knights in 1242 and also won victories over the Lithuanians and Finns. He collaborated with the Golden Horde in imposing Mongol rule on Russia, and the Great Khan made him grand prince of Vladimir. Alexander continued to rule Novgorod through his son. He helped the Mongols impose taxes, interceding with the Khan to prevent reprisals when rebellions broke out. A national hero, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox church
Severus Alexander
in full Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander orig. Gessius Bassianus Alexianus born AD 209, Phoenicia died 235, Gaul Roman emperor (222-235). At age 14 he succeeded Elagabalus, who had been murdered by the Praetorian Guard. Severus's mother and grandmother both held real power during his reign. A council of senators gave nominal ruling power to the Senate. Civil lawlessness reigned, and Severus's military incompetence led to defeat by the Persians, though their heavy losses forced them to withdraw from Mesopotamia. When he bought peace from the invading Germanic Alemanni, his indignant soldiers murdered him and his mother
Sir Alexander 10th Baronet Cockburn
born Dec. 24, 1802 died Nov. 21, 1880, London, Eng. British jurist. In his early career he earned a high reputation in trials and as a reporter of cases. He served in the House of Commons (1847-56), as attorney general (1851-56), and as chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas (1856-59) before being appointed to the Queen's Bench (1859-74). He served on the panel that decided the Alabama claims and finally served as lord chief justice of England (1874-80). He is best known for his tests of obscenity (to be obscene, the material in question had to be proved to "deprave and corrupt" those exposed to it) and insanity (to be insane, a criminal defendant had to be proved unwitting of the "nature and quality" of his criminal act or incapable of recognizing it as wrong)
Sir Alexander Fleming
a British scientist who discovered penicillin, a substance that is used as a medicine to destroy bacteria (=very small living things related to plants, some of which cause disease) (1881-1955). born Aug. 6, 1881, Lochfield, Ayr, Scot. died March 11, 1955, London, Eng. Scottish bacteriologist. While serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps in World War I, he conducted research on antibacterial substances that would be nontoxic to humans. In 1928 he inadvertently discovered penicillin when he noticed that a mold contaminating a bacterial culture was inhibiting the bacteria's growth. He shared a 1945 Nobel Prize with Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey, who both carried Fleming's basic discovery further in isolating, purifying, testing, and producing penicillin in quantity
Sir Alexander James Edmund 10th Baronet Cockburn
born Dec. 24, 1802 died Nov. 21, 1880, London, Eng. British jurist. In his early career he earned a high reputation in trials and as a reporter of cases. He served in the House of Commons (1847-56), as attorney general (1851-56), and as chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas (1856-59) before being appointed to the Queen's Bench (1859-74). He served on the panel that decided the Alabama claims and finally served as lord chief justice of England (1874-80). He is best known for his tests of obscenity (to be obscene, the material in question had to be proved to "deprave and corrupt" those exposed to it) and insanity (to be insane, a criminal defendant had to be proved unwitting of the "nature and quality" of his criminal act or incapable of recognizing it as wrong)
Sir Alexander Korda
orig. Sándor Laszlo Kellner born Sept. 16, 1893, Pusztatúrpásztó, Hung. died Jan. 23, 1956, London, Eng. Hungarian-born British film director and producer. He worked as a journalist in Budapest, where he founded a film magazine and, in 1917, became manager of the Corvin movie studio. He left Hungary in 1919 to make several films in Berlin, then went to Hollywood, where he directed movies such as The Private Life of Helen of Troy (1927). After moving to England in 1931, he founded London Film Productions. He helped develop Britain's film industry, directing and producing successful films such as The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), Catherine the Great (1934), The Scarlet Pimpernel (1935), and Rembrandt (1936), and producing The Third Man (1949), Summertime (1955), and Richard III (1955). In 1942 he received the first British knighthood conferred on someone in the film industry
Sir Alexander Mackenzie
born 1755?, Stornoway, Lewis and Harris, Outer Hebrides, Scot. died March 11, 1820, near Pitlochry, Perth Scottish-born Canadian explorer. Immigrating to Canada as a young man, he entered a fur-trading firm in 1779. In 1788 he set up a trading post, Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. From there he began an expedition (1789) that followed the Mackenzie River from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean. In 1793 he journeyed from Fort Chipewyan through the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast, thereby becoming the first European to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
born Sept. 6, 1817, London, Eng. died Sept. 19, 1893, Montreal, Que., Can. British-Canadian statesman. He immigrated to Lower Canada (later Quebec) in 1835 and worked for the British-American Land Co., serving as high commissioner from 1844 to 1855. He entered politics in 1849 as an independent member for Sherbrooke county in the legislature of the united province of Canada. He resigned from the legislature in 1850 but was reelected for Sherbrooke town in 1853. He maintained that seat and remained leader of the English-speaking minority until 1872. As finance minister (1858-62, 1864-67), he advocated federation; following the creation of the Dominion of Canada, he became the first finance minister of the Dominion government (1867-68). After retiring from Parliament in 1872, he advocated Canadian independence. From 1880 to 1883 he served as the first Canadian high commissioner in London
Sir Eyre Alexander Barby Wichart Crowe
born July 30, 1864, Leipzig, Ger. died April 28, 1925, Swanage, Dorset, Eng. British diplomat. In the years before World War I he strongly urged an anti-German policy, arguing in a 1907 memorandum that Germany aimed at the domination of Europe, that concessions would only increase its appetite for power, and that the entente with France must not be abandoned. On July 25, 1914, he urged a show of force by the British navy to forestall war, and when war began a few days later he induced the government to seize German vessels in British ports. He served as permanent undersecretary of state for foreign affairs (1920-25)
Sir John Alexander Macdonald
{i} (1815-1891) Scotish born Canadian statesman, first prime minister of Canada (1867-1873, 1878-1891)
Sir John Alexander Macdonald
born Jan. 11, 1815, Glasgow, Scot. died June 6, 1891, Ottawa, Ont., Can. Canadian politician, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada (1867-73, 1878-91). He immigrated to Canada as a child and practiced law in Kingston, Upper Canada (now Ontario), from 1836. From 1844 to 1854 he served in the Province of Canada's assembly. He cofounded the Liberal-Conservative Party (see Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) in 1854 and became premier of the Province of Canada in 1857. He worked for confederation and helped secure passage of the British North America Act, which created the Dominion of Canada (1867). As prime minister, he supported trade protectionism and aided the completion of the Pacific railway. In response to later challenges to Canadian unity, he advocated loyalty to the British Commonwealth and independence from the U.S
Sir Peter Alexander Ustinov
born April 16, 1921, London, Eng. died March 28, 2004, Genolier, Switz. British actor, director, author, and playwright. He made his professional stage debut at age 17, in which he displayed his talents for vocal mimicry and age affectation, and landed his first major screen role in The Goose Steps Out (1942). His film appearances include Lola Montès (1955), Spartacus (1960, Academy Award), Topkapi (1964, Academy Award), and a recurring role as Hercule Poirot in movies based on Agatha Christie's mysteries, beginning with Death on the Nile (1978). He both starred in and directed Billy Budd (1962), among other films. Lady L (1965), with Sophia Loren and Paul Newman, was probably his best-received directorial effort. He wrote successful plays such as The Love of Four Colonels (1951) and Romanoff and Juliet (1956) and won Emmy Awards for his television performances in The Life of Samuel Johnson (1957), Barefoot in Athens (1966), and A Storm in Summer (1970). Ustinov also wrote several novels and the autobiographical works Dear Me (1977), Ustinov at Large (1993), and Ustinov Still at Large (1994). Noted for his humanitarian efforts, he served as ambassador at large for UNICEF from 1969 until his death. Ustinov was knighted in 1990
Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt
born April 13, 1892, Brechin, Scot. died Dec. 5, 1973, Inverness Scottish physicist. He began as a meteorologist working on devices for locating thunderstorms. As head of the radio department of Britain's National Physical Laboratory (1935), he worked on aircraft radio location and could locate planes at a distance of about 80 mi (110 km) by beaming radio waves at them, receiving reflections of the waves, and calculating distance by elapsed time. This led to the design of the world's first practical radar system, a vital element in the defense of Britain against German air raids during World War II. His other contributions include a cathode-ray direction finder used to study atmospheric phenomena, research in electromagnetic radiation, and inventions used for flight safety
Wilhelm Alexander Freund
{i} Wilhelm A. Freund (1833-1918), German gynecologist
William Alexander 1st earl of Stirling
born 1576, Menstrie, Clackmannan, Scot. died Feb. 12, 1640, London, Eng. Scottish poet and colonizer of Canada. He was a member of the court of James I, where he wrote his sonnet sequence Aurora (1604). In 1621 he obtained a grant for territory in North America that he named New Scotland (Nova Scotia), despite French claims to part of the land. He offered baronetcies to Scotsmen who would sponsor settlers, but the region was not colonized until his son established a settlement at Port Royal (Annapolis Royal). Alexander was compelled to surrender the territory under the Treaty of Susa (1629), which ended an Anglo-French conflict. Scottish settlers were ordered to withdraw by 1631
alexander

    Heceleme

    Al·ex·an·der

    Türkçe nasıl söylenir

    älıgzändır

    Telaffuz

    /ˌaləgˈzandər/ /ˌæləɡˈzændɜr/

    Etimoloji

    [ "a-lig-'zan-d&r, "e- ] (noun.) 1928. From Latin Alexander Ancient Greek Ἀλέξανδρος (Aléxandros) ἀλέξω (aléxō, “I defend”) + ἀνδρός (andrós), genitive of ἀνήρ (anēr, “man”).

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