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Etymology: [ "a-lig-'zan-d&r, "e- ] (noun.) 1928. From Latin Alexander Ancient Greek Ἀλέξανδρος (Aléxandros) ἀλέξω (aléxō, “I defend”) + ἀνδρός (andrós), genitive of ἀνήρ (anēr, “man”).
1 iskender
2 n.pr. tskender; ~ der Große Büyük İskender; (İskenderi Kebir; tskender Zülkarneyn)
 
10 A male given name, most famously held by Alexander the Great - ""My son's name is Alexander," Muriel said. "Did I tell you that? I named him Alexander because it sounded high-class."
11 A patronymic surname
12 Alexanders: any of various umbellifers, often specifically Smyrnium olusatrum or Heracleum maximum, the cow parsnip
13 most famously held by Alexander the Great
14 king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC)
15 Russian Aleksandr Pavlovich born Dec. 23, 1777, St. Petersburg, Russia died Dec. 1, 1825, Taganrog Tsar of Russia (1801-25). He became tsar in 1801 after the assassination of his father, Paul I. He and his advisers corrected many of the injustices of the preceding reign but failed to carry out the abolition of serfdom. During the Napoleonic Wars he alternately fought and befriended Napoleon and helped form the coalition that finally defeated him. Alexander also participated in the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) and formed the Holy Alliance (1815). After his sudden death in 1825, a legend sprang up that he had simply "departed" to a Siberian retreat. born Dec. 4, 1888, Cetinje, Montenegro died Oct. 9, 1934, Marseille, France King of Yugoslavia (1921-34). After commanding Serbian forces in World War I, Alexander succeeded his father, Peter I, as king of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1921. In 1929 he abolished the constitution and established a royal dictatorship. As part of his efforts to unify his subjects, he changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia; outlawed political parties based on ethnic, religious, or regional distinctions; reorganized the state; and standardized legal systems, school curricula, and national holidays. In 1934 he was assassinated by an agent of Croatian separatists. Russian Aleksandr Nikolayevich born April 29, 1818, Moscow, Russia died March 13, 1881, St. Petersburg Tsar of Russia (1855-81). He succeeded to the throne at the height of the Crimean War, which revealed Russia's backwardness on the world stage. In response, he undertook drastic reform, improving communications, government, and education, and most importantly, emancipating the serfs (1861). His reforms reduced class privilege and fostered humanitarian progress and economic development. Though sometimes described as a liberal, Alexander was in reality a firm upholder of autocratic principles, and an assassination attempt in 1866 strengthened his commitment to conservatism. A period of repression after 1866 led to a resurgence of revolutionary terrorism, and in 1881 he was killed in a plot sponsored by the terrorist organization People's Will. born Aug. 24, 1198, Haddington, Lothian died July 8, 1249, Kerrera Island King of Scotland (1214-49). He came to the throne on the death of his father, William I (the Lion). In 1215 he supported the rebellious English barons against King John, hoping to regain land in northern England. After the rebellion collapsed (1217), he did homage to Henry III and in 1221 married Henry's sister, Joan. He consolidated royal authority in Scotland and subdued Argyll in 1222. In 1237 he concluded the Peace of York with Henry by which he abandoned his claim to land in England and received in exchange several English estates. orig. Rolando Bandinelli born 1105, Siena, Tuscany died Aug. 30, 1181, Rome Pope (1159-81). A member of the group of cardinals who feared the growing strength of the Holy Roman Empire, he helped draw up an alliance with the Normans (1156). As the representative of Pope Adrian IV, he angered Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa) by referring to the empire as a "benefice," implying that it was a gift of the pope. On Alexander's election as pope in 1159, a minority of cardinals supported by Frederick elected the first of several antipopes, and imperial opposition obliged Alexander to flee to France (1162). A vigorous defender of papal authority, he supported St. Thomas Becket against Henry II of England. He returned to Rome in 1165 but was exiled again the following year. He gained support with the formation of the Lombard League, which defeated Frederick at Legnano in 1176, paving the way for the Peace of Venice and the end of the papal schism. Alexander stood in the reform tradition and presided at the third Lateran Council (1179). Russian Aleksandr Aleksandrovich born March 10, 1845, St. Petersburg, Russia died Nov. 1, 1894, Livadiya, Crimea Tsar of Russia (1881-94). He assumed the throne after the assassination of his father, Alexander II. The internal reforms he instituted were designed to correct what he saw as the too-liberal tendencies of his father's reign. He thus opposed representative government and ardently supported Russian nationalism. His political ideal was a nation containing a single nationality, language, religion, and form of administration, and accordingly he instituted programs such as the Russification of national minorities in the Russian Empire and the persecution of non-Orthodox religious groups. born Sept. 2, 1241 died March 18/19, 1286, near Kinghorn, Fife, Scot. King of Scotland (1249-86). Son of Alexander II, he came to the throne at age
16 In 1251 he was married to Margaret, daughter of England's King Henry III, who sought to gain control over Scotland. In 1255 Alexander was seized by a pro-English party in Scotland; in 1257 the anti-English party gained control of the government until he came of age (1262). In 1263 he repulsed a Norwegian invasion, and in 1266 he acquired the Hebrides and the Isle of Man from Norway. His reign was later viewed as a golden age by Scots caught up in the long conflict with England. orig. Rodrigo de Borja y Doms born 1431, Játiva, Aragon died Aug. 18, 1503, Rome Pope (1492-1503). Born into the Spanish branch of the Borgia family, he amassed great wealth and lived scandalously, fathering four illegitimate children (before his election as pope), who played an important role in his complicated dynastic plans. He warred against the Ottoman Turks and forced the French to abandon their effort to seize Naples. The murder of his son Juan (1497) prompted Alexander's short-lived attempt to restrain the corruption of the papal court. His political ambitions, however, were revived with the marriage of his son Cesare, whose military campaigns brought northern Italy under Borgia control. He concluded an alliance with Spain and negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). A patron of the arts, he embellished the Vatican palaces and commissioned Michelangelo to draw up plans for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica. Agassiz Alexander Emmanuel Rodolphe Alexander Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl Alexander I Alexander II Alexander III Alexander VI Alexander Archipelago Alexander Island Alexander Nevsky Saint Alexander the Great Archipenko Alexander Bach Alexander baron von Bell Alexander Graham Calder Alexander Stirling Cartwright Alexander Joy Cockburn Sir Alexander James Edmund 10th Baronet Crowe Sir Eyre Alexander Barby Wichart Dubcek Alexander Fleming Sir Alexander Galt Sir Alexander Tilloch Gardner Alexander Archibald Alexander Leach Haley Alexander Palmer Hamilton Alexander Jackson Alexander Young Alexander Liholiho Korda Sir Alexander Macdonald Sir John Alexander MacDowell Edward Alexander Edward Alexander McDowell Cornelius Alexander McGillicuddy Mackenzie Alexander Mackenzie Sir Alexander Macmillan Daniel and Alexander McGillivray Alexander Milne Alan Alexander Mundell Robert Alexander Olav Alexander Edward Christian Frederik Palmer Alexander Mitchell Pope Alexander Richards Isaac Vivian Alexander Schuller Gunther Alexander Schumann Robert Alexander Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Alexander Pius Simon Herbert Alexander Stephens Alexander Hamilton Stirling William Alexander 1st earl of Ustinov Sir Peter Alexander Watson Watt Sir Robert Alexander Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk Wilson Alexander Woollcott Alexander Humphreys William Alexander Abbott Alexander Frederick Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr baron von Jesse Woodson James and Alexander Franklin James Severus Alexander Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
17 European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
18 male first name  isim
19 king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC) European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
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